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1 Identification of volatile components in Phyllanthus emblica L. and their antimicrobial activity.

 

 

Liu X, Zhao M, Luo W, Yang B, Jiang Y.

College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, The People's Republic of China.

The volatile components and in vitro antimicrobial activities of Emblica (Phyllanthus emblica L.) essential oils (EOs) obtained by hydrodistillation (HD-EO) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE-EO) were investigated. The compositions of volatile compounds in these oils were tentatively determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial activites of these two extracts were investigated with microbiological tests against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and three pathogenic fungi. The main components of both oils were beta-caryophyllene, beta-bourbonene, 1-octen-3-ol, thymol, and methyleugenol. Both essential oils showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against all the tested microorganisms. Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the investigated oils than Gram-negative bacteria. SFE-EO exhibited a higher antifungal activity compared to HD-EO.

PMID: 19459747 [PubMed - in process]

 

2.Modulatory role of Emblica officinalis fruit extract against arsenic induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.


Sharma A, Sharma MK, Kumar M.


Department of Zoology, Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India.

Arsenic, an important human toxin, is naturally occurring in groundwater and its accumulation in plants and animals have assumed a menacing proportion in a large part of the world, particularly Asia. Epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between chronic arsenic exposure and various adverse health effects, including cardiovascular diseases, neurological defects and cancer of lung, skin, bladder, liver and kidney. The protective role of the fruits of Emblica officinalis (500 mg/kg b.wt.) was studied in adult Swiss albino mice against arsenic induced hepatopathy. Arsenic treated group (NaAsO(2), 4 mg/kg b.wt.) had a significant increase in serum transaminases and lipid peroxidation (LPO) content in liver, whereas significant decrease was recorded in hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. Combined treatment of Emblica and arsenic (pre and post) declined the serum transaminases and LPO content in liver whereas significant increase was noticed in SOD, CAT, GST and serum alkaline phosphatase activities. Liver histopathology showed that Emblica fruit extract had reduced karyolysis, karyorrhexis, necrosis and cytoplasmic vacuolization induced by NaAsO(2) intoxication. Thus it can be concluded that pre- and post-supplementation of E. officinalis fruit extract significantly reduced arsenic induced oxidative stress in liver.

PMID: 19428342 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 
 

3. Effect of Emblica officinalis (Gaertn) on lens regeneration in the frog, Rana cyanophlyctis (Schneider).

Banot J, Lata G, Jangir OP, Sharma M, Rathore VS, Saini SK, Nagal A.

Developmental Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Dungar College, Bikaner 334 001, India.

Emblica officinalis (Amla) accelerated cell proliferation and dedifferentiation of pigmented epithelial cells of dorsal iris and consequently induced lens regeneration in R. cyanophlyctis. Further it enhanced the percentage of lens regeneration not only in young tadpoles but also is adult frogs. Lens regeneration ability declined with the age of animals in both control as well as treated groups.

PMID: 19405379 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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    4.Anti-Coxsackie Virus B3 Norsesquiterpenoids from the Roots of Phyllanthus emblica.

    Liu Q, Wang YF, Chen RJ, Zhang MY, Wang YF, Yang CR, Zhang YJ.

    State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204, People's Republic of China, Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, People's Republic of China, and Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research & Development Center, Guangzhou 510632, People's Republic of China.

    Three new norsesquiterpenoid glycosides, 4'-hydroxyphyllaemblicin B (1) and phyllaemblicins E (2) and F (3), were isolated from the roots of Phyllanthus emblica, together with three known compounds, phyllaemblic acid (4), phyllaemblicin B (5), and phyllaemblicin C (6). Of these, 3 is a new norsesquiterpenoid dimer. The structures of 1-3 were established by spectroscopic data information and by acidic hydrolysis. The isolated compounds, together with two other known analogues, phyllaemblic acid methyl ester (7) and phyllaemblicin A (8), were evaluated for their antiviral activity toward coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3) by an in vitro cytopathic effect inhibitory assay. Compounds 5-7 exhibited strong anti-CVB3 activity.

    PMID: 19374435 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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    5. Optimum extraction Process of polyphenols from the bark of Phyllanthus emblica L. based on the response surface methodology.

    Yang L, Jiang JG, Li WF, Chen J, Wang DY, Zhu L.

    College of Food and Bioengineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China.

    Phyllanthus emblica L. is an economic plant used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of various diseases. The bark of P. emblica is rich in polyphenols and its extractions have shown strong antioxidative and radical scavenging activity. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to assess the optimal extraction of polyphenols from P. emblica bark. Various extraction parameters including ethanol concentration, extraction time, temperature, solid-liquid ratio, and extraction times were chosen to identify their effects on polyphenols extraction. Among these parameters, extraction times and solvent concentration were found to have significant effect on polyphenols extraction. RSM was applied to obtain the optimal combination of solvent concentration, extraction time, temperature, and extraction time for maximum rate of extraction. The most suitable condition for the extraction of polyphenols was at ethanol concentration 75%, extraction time 25 min, extraction temperature 45 degrees C, and extraction times 3. At these optimal extraction parameters, the maximum extraction of polyphenols obtained experimentally was found to be very close to its predicted value. The extraction rate of polyphenols was 19.78% at the optimum conditions. The mathematical model developed was found to fit with the experimental data of polyphenols extraction.

    PMID: 19350583 [PubMed - in process]

     

    6. Antioxidative activity, polyphenolic content and anti-glycation effect of some Thai medicinal plants traditionally used in diabetic patients.

    Kusirisin W, Srichairatanakool S, Lerttrakarnnon P, Lailerd N, Suttajit M, Jaikang C, Chaiyasut C.

    Department of Pharmaceutical Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

    Ethanolic extracts of 30 Thai medicinal plants, traditionally used as alternative treatments in diabetes, were evaluated for antioxidative activity by the 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) method. They were evaluated in vitro for oxidative stress by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) assay in pooled plasma of diabetic patients compared to without treatment of the extracts (control). The extracts were also assayed for protein glycation. The results showed that five plants had strong antioxidant activity: Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE), Terminalia chebula Retz. (TC), Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MC), Kaempferia parviflora Wall. (KP) and Houttuynia cordata Thunb.(HC), respectively. Thirty plant extracts were good correlation between total antioxidant activity and antiradical activity by TBARS as well as by glycation (r = 0.856, p<0.01 and r = 0.810, p<0.01). PE had stronger antioxidative activity as well as inhibition of TBARS and glycation than the other plants. The investigation showed that total polyphenol and tannin content of PE and the flavonoid content of HC were the highest. The results imply that these plants are potential sources of natural antioxidants which have free radical scavenging activity and might be used for reducing oxidative stress in diabetes.

    PMID: 19275712 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 

    7. Wound Healing Activity of Topical Application Forms Based on Ayurveda.

    Datta HS, Mitra SK, Patwardhan B.

    Chief Academics, Manipal Education, 14 Airport Road, Manipal Towers, Bangalore - 560 008, India. bhushan.patwardhan@manipalu.com.

    The traditional Indian medicine-Ayurveda, describes various herbs, fats, oils and minerals with anti-aging as well as wound healing properties. With aging, numerous changes occur in skin, including decrease in tissue cell regeneration, decrease in collagen content, loss of skin elasticity and mechanical strength. We prepared five topical anti-aging formulations using cow ghee, flax seed oil, Phyllanthus emblica fruits, Shorea robusta resin, Yashada bhasma as study materials. For preliminary efficacy evaluation of the anti-aging activity we chose excision and incision wound healing animal models and studied the parameters including wound contraction, collagen content and skin breaking strength which in turn is indicative of the tissue cell regeneration capacity, collagenation capacity and mechanical strength of skin. The group treated with the formulations containing Yashada bhasma along with Shorea robusta resin and flax seed oil showed significantly better wound contraction (P<0.01), higher collagen content (P < 0.05) and better skin breaking strength (P<0.01) as compared to control group; thus proposing them to be effective prospective anti-aging formulations.

    PMID: 19252191 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

     

    8. Protective effect of an extract of Emblica officinalis against radiation-induced damage in mice.

    Jindal A, Soyal D, Sharma A, Goyal PK.

    Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India.

    The radioprotective effect of Emblica officinalis extract (EOE) was studied in mice. Swiss albino mice were exposed to gamma rays (5 Gy) in the absence (control) or presence (experimental) of EOE, orally 100 mg/kg body weight, once daily for 7 consecutive days. A specimen of small intestine (jejunum) was removed from the mice and studied at different autopsy intervals from 12 hours to 30 days. In control animals, crypt cell population, mitotic figures, and villus length were markedly reduced on day 1; these later started to increase progressively but did not attain the normal level even at the last autopsy interval. The animals receiving EOE prior to irradiation had a higher number of crypt cells and mitotic figures when compared with non-drug-treated control at all the autopsy intervals. Irradiation of animals resulted in a dose-dependent elevation in lipid peroxidation and a reduction in glutathione as well as catalase concentration in the intestine at 1 hour post-irradiation. In contrast, EOE treatment before irradiation caused a significant depletion in lipid peroxidation and elevation in glutathione and catalase levels.

    PMID: 19223372 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 

    9.Supplementation of Emblica officinalis (Amla) extract reduces oxidative stress in uremic patients.

    Chen TS, Liou SY, Chang YL.

    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Road, Chung Li, Taiwan 32023, Taiwan.

    Emblica Officinalis (also known as Amla or Indian Gooseberry), a natural, traditional and functional food in Asia, has physiological benefits such as hepato-, cyto- and radio- protection, as well as hypolipidemic effects. In addition, Amla often functions as a potent antioxidant due to the high level of ascorbic acid (ranging from 1,100 to 1,700 mg/100 g of fruit) in its fruit. The aim of this study was to determine whether supplementation with Amla extract could reduce oxidative stress in patients with uremia. The findings show that supplementation with Amla extract for 4 months reduced the plasma oxidative marker, 8-iso-prostaglandin, (M0 vs. M4 = 1415 +/- 1234 pg/ml vs. 750 +/- 496 pg/ml, p < 0.05) and increased plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) (M0 vs. M4 = 2.32 +/- 0.14 mM vs. 2.55 +/- 0.24 mM, p < 0.05) in uremic patients. On the other hand, there were no significant differences observed in liver function (GOP and GPT), renal function (creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and uric acid), diabetic index (plasma glucose and adiponectin) and atherogenic index (LDL/HDL ratio, total cholesterol and homocysteine) in patients treated with Amla for 4 months. Our data suggest that Amla supplementation may increase plasma antioxidant power and decrease oxidative stress in uremic patients. However, Amla extract did not influence hepatic or renal function, or diabetic and atherogenic indices in uremic patients.

    PMID: 19222108 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

     

    10. Chemical and antioxidant evaluation of Indian gooseberry (emblica officinalis gaertn., syn. phyllanthus emblica L.) supplements.

    Poltanov EA, Shikov AN, Dorman HJ, Pozharitskaya ON, Makarov VG, Tikhonov VP, Hiltunen R.

    Open joint-stock company 'Diod', 11a Derbenevskaya Avenue, 113114, Moscow, Russia.

    Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) (Euphorbiaceae) has a distinguished history in Ayurveda medicine and is ascribed a number of medicinal properties and as a dietary supplement, its use is increasing in Western countries. It is thought that its beneficial properties are a function of its antioxidant potency. The study investigated the chemistry and antioxidant properties of four commercial E. officinalis fruit extracts in order to determine if there are any qualitative-quantitative differences. All extracts produced positive responses in the total phenol, total flavonoid and total tannin assays. The presence of predominantly (poly)phenolic analytes, e.g. ellagic and gallic acids and corilagin, was confirmed by RP-HPLC coupled with photodiode array detection. Despite ascorbic acid being a major constituent of E. officinalis fruits, the furanolactone could not be identified in one of the samples. The extracts demonstrated varying degrees of antioxidative efficacy. The extract designated IG-3 was consistently amongst the most effective extracts in the iron(III) reduction and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays while the extract designated IG-1 demonstrated the best hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. All extracts appeared to be incapable of chelating iron(II) at realistic concentrations. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    PMID: 19172666 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] 

    11. Emblica officinalis exerts wound healing action through up-regulation of collagen and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2).

    Sumitra M, Manikandan P, Gayathri VS, Mahendran P, Suguna L.

    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Gill Heart Institute, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.

    During wound healing, the wound site is rich in oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide, mostly contributed by neutrophils and macrophages. Ascorbic acid and tannins of low molecular weight, namely emblicanin A (2,3-di-O-galloyl-4,6-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-2-keto-glucono-delta-lactone) and emblicanin B (2,3,4,6-bis-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-2-keto-glucono-delta-lactone) present in Emblica officinalis (emblica), have been shown to exhibit a very strong antioxidant action. We proposed that addition of these antioxidants to the wound microenvironment would support the repair process. The present investigation was undertaken to determine the efficacy of emblica on dermal wound healing in vivo. Full-thickness excision wounds were made on the back of the rat and topical application of emblica accelerated wound contraction and closure. Emblica increased cellular proliferation and cross-linking of collagen at the wound site, as evidenced by an increase in the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, along with an increase in DNA, type III collagen, acid-soluble collagen, aldehyde content, shrinkage temperature and tensile strength. Higher levels of tissue ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase support the fact that emblica application promotes antioxidant activity at the wound site. In summary, this study provides firm evidence to support that topical application of emblica represents a feasible and productive approach to support dermal wound healing.

    PMID: 19152656 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

     

    12. Effect of several flavonoid-containing plant preparations on activity of mitochondrial ATP-dependent potassium channel.

    [Article in English, Russian]

    Mironova GD, Shigaeva MI, Belosludtseva NV, Gritsenko EN, Belosludtsev KN, Germanova EL, Lukyanova LD.

    Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Russia.

    Flavonoid-containing plant preparations (water soluble extracts of Pentaphylloides fruticosa [Extralife], Emblica officinalis Gaerth [Amla], and Bergenia crassifolia [Bergenia]) produced a dose-dependent and tissue-specific effect on activity of mitochondrial ATP-dependent potassium channel. The effect of these preparations was biphasic (activation and inhibition). The activating effect of Extralife was one order of magnitude higher than that of Amla and Bergenia and was observed in a wider concentration range. The activating effect of preparations was abolished by inhibitors of the mitochondrial ATP-dependent potassium channel, which attested to specificity of their influence on mitochondrial channel. Under in vivo conditions, the antihypoxic effect of Extralife was partially abolished by mitochondrial ATP-dependent potassium channel inhibitor 5-hydroxydecanoate.

    PMID: 19145325 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

     

    13.Ascorbic acid and tannins from Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Fruits--a revisit.

    Majeed M, Bhat B, Jadhav AN, Srivastava JS, Nagabhushanam K.

    Sami Labs Ltd, I Main, II Phase, Peenya Industrial Area, Bangalore, India.

    The fruits of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Euphorbiaceae), also known as amla in Ayurveda, are considered to be a rich source of ascorbic acid. However, the antioxidant activities exhibited by E. officinalis extract are superior to those of ascorbic acid itself. Low molecular hydrolyzable tannins emblicanins A and B have been suggested in the earlier literature to be the contributory antioxidant molecules in the extract. This work finds no evidence for the presence of emblicanins A and B in the extract. In addition, the high content of ascorbic acid is also questionable due to previous nonidentification of coeluting mucic acid gallates. This paper reports a new HPLC method to detect even trace amounts of ascorbic acid in E. officinalis fruit juice or extract.

    PMID: 19063633 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 

    14. Antioxidant evaluation of three adaptogen extracts.

    Chen TS, Liou SY, Chang YL.

    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung Li, Taiwan 32023, Taiwan.

    Adaptogens are harmless herbs which have pharmaceutical benefits due to their balancing, regulative and tonic functions. However, despite these medicinal effects, the antioxidant potential of adaptogens is rarely mentioned. This study investigated the antioxidant potential of 3 adaptogen extracts, Rhodiola rosea (golden root), Eleutherococcus senticosis (Siberian ginseng) and Emblica officinalis (Indian gooseberry, Amla). The results of this study showed that R. rosea had the highest potential for singlet oxygen scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric reducing, ferrous chelating and protein thiol protection than either of the other 2 extracts. E. senticosis, on the other hand, showed the best potential for hypochlorite scavenging. In addition, the polyphenol content in the 3 adaptogen extracts followed the order: R. rosea, E. officinalis and E. senticosis. Our data suggest that the antioxidant potential of the 3 adaptogen extracts was proportional to their respective polyphenol content. The supplementation of adaptogen extracts containing high levels of polyphenols may not only have adaptogen properties, but may decrease the risk of complications induced by oxidative stress.

    PMID: 19051347 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

     

    15.Protective efficacy of Emblica officinalis against Klebsiella pneumoniae induced pneumonia in mice.

    Saini A, Sharma S, Chhibber S.

    Department of Microbiology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.

    BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Emblica officinalis (amla), which is a good source of vitamin C, has been shown to be beneficial due to its immune system enhancing property coupled with its tonifying and antiageing effect. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of E. officinalis feeding on the susceptibility of experimental mice to respiratory tract infection induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae. METHODS: The effect of short- (15 days) and long (30 days)-term feeding of amla in mice on the course of K. pneumoniae ATCC43816 infection in lungs was studied, in terms of bacterial colonization, macrophage activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite production in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha level in serum was also assessed. RESULTS: Though there was a decrease in bacterial colonization after short-term feeding, it was not significant. On the contrary, the decrease in bacterial load was significant (P < 0.05) on long-term feeding. The operative mechanisms in terms of lipid peroxidation, phagocytosis and nitrite production were studied by estimating their levels in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Maximum decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increase in phagocytic activity and nitrite levels on long-term feeding was seen. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: These results suggest that dietary supplementation with amla protects against bacterial colonization of lungs on long-term feeding in experimental model. Further studies need to be conducted to understand the actual mechanism.

    PMID: 19001683 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

     

    16. Induction of apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts treated with extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis.

    Penolazzi L, Lampronti I, Borgatti M, Khan MT, Zennaro M, Piva R, Gambari R.

    BioPharmaNet, ER-GenTech, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ferrara University, Ferrara, Italy. pnlmlt@unife.it

    BACKGROUND: Osteoclasts (OCs) are involved in rheumatoid arthritis and in several pathologies associated with bone loss. Recent results support the concept that some medicinal plants and derived natural products are of great interest for developing therapeutic strategies against bone disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study we determined whether extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits display activity of possible interest for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis by activating programmed cell death of human primary osteoclasts. METHODS: The effects of extracts from Emblica officinalis on differentiation and survival of human primary OCs cultures obtained from peripheral blood were determined by tartrate-acid resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positivity and colorimetric MTT assay. The effects of Emblica officinalis extracts on induction of OCs apoptosis were studied using TUNEL and immunocytochemical analysis of FAS receptor expression. Finally, in vitro effects of Emblica officinalis extracts on NF-kB transcription factor activity were determined by gel shift experiments. RESULTS: Extracts of Emblica officinalis were able to induce programmed cell death of mature OCs, without altering, at the concentrations employed in our study, the process of osteoclastogenesis. Emblica officinalis increased the expression levels of Fas, a critical member of the apoptotic pathway. Gel shift experiments demonstrated that Emblica officinalis extracts act by interfering with NF-kB activity, a transcription factor involved in osteoclast biology. The data obtained demonstrate that Emblica officinalis extracts selectively compete with the binding of transcription factor NF-kB to its specific target DNA sequences. This effect might explain the observed effects of Emblica officinalis on the expression levels of interleukin-6, a NF-kB specific target gene. CONCLUSION: Induction of apoptosis of osteoclasts could be an important strategy both in interfering with rheumatoid arthritis complications of the bone skeleton leading to joint destruction, and preventing and reducing osteoporosis. Accordingly, we suggest the application of Emblica officinalis extracts as an alternative tool for therapy applied to bone diseases.

    PMID: 18973662 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC2587459

     

    17. Chondroprotective Potential of Fruit Extracts of Phyllanthus emblica in Osteoarthritis.

    Sumantran VN, Kulkarni A, Chandwaskar R, Harsulkar A, Patwardhan B, Chopra A, Wagh UV.

    Interactive Research School for Health Affairs (IRSHA), Bhartiya Vidyapeeth Deemed University Medical College Campus, Dhankawadi, Pune 411043, Director, Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, Pune University, Pune 411007 and Director, Center for Rheumatic Diseases, Camp, Pune 411001, India.

    There is a need for effective nutraceuticals for osteoarthritis care. The fruit of Phyllanthus emblica is used as a powerful rejuvenator in Ayurvedic medicine. This study measured the chondroprotective potential of P. emblica ('Amalaki') fruits in vitro. We used aqueous extracts of unprocessed P. emblica fruit powder (powder A), and the powder obtained after hot water extraction and drying of powder A (powder B). Chondroprotection was measured in three different assay systems. First, we tested the effects of both fruit powders on the activities of the enzymes hyaluronidase and collagenase type 2. Second, an in vitro model of cartilage degradation was set-up with explant cultures of articular knee cartilage from osteoarthritis patients. Cartilage damage was assayed by measuring glycosaminoglycan release from explants treated with/without P. emblica fruit powders. Aqueous extracts of both fruit powders significantly inhibited the activities of hyaluronidase and collagenase type 2 in vitro. Third, in the explant model of cartilage matrix damage, extracts of glucosamine sulphate and powder B (0.05 mg/ml) exhibited statistically significant, long-term chondroprotective activity in cartilage explants from 50% of the patients tested. This result is important since glucosamine sulphate is the leading nutraceutical for osteoarthritis. Powder A induced a statistically significant, short-term chondroprotective activity in cartilage explants from all of the patients tested. This is the first study to identify and quantitate new chondroprotective activities of P. emblica fruits. These data provide pilot pre-clinical evidence for the use of P. emblica fruits as a chondroprotective agent in osteoarthritis therapy.

    PMID: 18830448 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] PMCID: PMC2529383

     

    18.Pyrogallol, an active compound from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis, regulates expression of pro-inflammatory genes in bronchial epithelial cells.

    Nicolis E, Lampronti I, Dechecchi MC, Borgatti M, Tamanini A, Bianchi N, Bezzerri V, Mancini I, Giri MG, Rizzotti P, Gambari R, Cabrini G.

    Laboratory of Molecular Pathology, Laboratory of Clinical Chemistry and Haematology, University-Hospital, Verona, Italy.

    The most relevant cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is the lung pathology characterized by chronic infection and inflammation sustained mainly by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). Innovative pharmacological approaches to control the excessive inflammatory process in the lung of CF patients are thought to be beneficial to reduce the extensive airway tissue damage. Medicinal plants from the so-called traditional Asian medicine are attracting a growing interest because of their potential efficacy and safety. Due to the presence of different active compounds in each plant extract, understanding the effect of each component is important to pursue selective and reproducible applications. Extracts from Emblica officinalis (EO) were tested in IB3-1 CF bronchial epithelial cells exposed to the P. aeruginosa laboratory strain PAO1. EO strongly inhibited the PAO1-dependent expression of the neutrophil chemokines IL-8, GRO-alpha, GRO-gamma, of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 and of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Pyrogallol, one of the compounds extracted from EO, inhibited the P. aeruginosa-dependent expression of these pro-inflammatory genes similarly to the whole EO extract, whereas a second compound purified from EO, namely 5-hydroxy-isoquinoline, had no effect. These results identify Pyrogallol as an active compound responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect of EO and suggest to extend the investigation in pre-clinical studies in airway animal models in vivo, to test the efficacy and safety of this molecule in CF chronic lung inflammatory disease.

    PMID: 18760383 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

     

    19. Emblica officinalis aqueous extract ameliorates ochratoxin-induced lipid peroxidation in the testis of mice.

    Verma R, Chakraborty D.

    Toxicology Division, Department of Zoology, University School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad 380 009, India. ramtejverma2000@yahoo.com

    The present study was undertaken to assess the ameliorative effect of Emblica officinalis aqueous extract on ochratoxin-induced lipid peroxidation in the testis of mice. Adult male albino mice were orally administered with 50 and 100 microg of ochratoxin (Groups 4, 5) in 0.2 mL olive oil/animal/day for 45 days. The results revealed a significant increase in LPO (lipid peroxidation) in the testis of mice treated with ochratoxin compared to that of vehicle control (Group 2). The levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants: GSH (glutathione) and TAA (total ascorbic acid) as well as enzymatic antioxidants: SOD (superoxide dismutase), CAT (catalase), GPX (glutathione peroxidase), GRX (glutathione reductase) and GST (glutathione transferase) were significantly decreased in the testis of ochratoxin-treated mice. Oral administration of Emblica officinalis aqueous extract (2 mg/animal/day) along with ochratoxin (Groups 6, 7) for 45 days, caused, significant, amelioration in ochratoxin-induced LPO by increasing the contents of non-enzymatic (GSH and TAA) and activities of enzymatic (SOD, CAT, GPX, GRX and GST) antioxidants in the testis of mice as compared with those given ochratoxin alone animals (Groups 4, 5). Thus, oral administration of Emblica officinalis aqueous extract along with ochratoxin significantly ameliorates ochratoxin-induced lipid peroxidation in the testis of mice.

    PMID: 18666424 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

     
     

    20. Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) extract promotes procollagen production and inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-1 in human skin fibroblasts.

    Fujii T, Wakaizumi M, Ikami T, Saito M.

    Institute for Health Sciences, MIKI Corporation, 12-4, Naruohama 3, Nishinomiya 663-8142, Hyogo, Japan. fujii@mikiprune.co.jp

    AIM OF THE STUDY: Emblica officinalis Gaertn., commonly known as amla, is a rich dietary source of vitamin C, minerals and amino acids, and also contains various phenolic compounds. Amla extract is also known to exhibits potent antioxidant properties and to provide protection for human dermal fibroblasts against oxidative stress, and therefore it is thought to be useful for natural skin care. In this study, we investigated the effects of amla extract on human skin fibroblasts, especially for production of procollagen and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mitochondrial activity of human skin fibroblasts were measured by WST-8 assay. Quantification of procollagen, MMPs, and Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) released from human skin fibroblasts were performed by immunoassay technique. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Amla extract stimulated proliferation of fibroblasts in a concentration-dependent manner, and also induced production of procollagen in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Conversely, MMP-1 production from fibroblasts was dramatically decreased, but there was no evident effect on MMP-2. TIMP-1 was significantly increased by amla extract. From these results, it appears that amla extract works effectively in mitigative, therapeutic and cosmetic applications through control of collagen metabolism.

    PMID: 18588964 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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    e ascemrums and spots over the body.

    7. Preventsnt, refrigerant, diuretic, laxative and tonic.

    Home remedies:

    1. Amalaki is the highest natural source of Vitamin C. Consumption of one fresh fruit provides 3000 mg Vitamin C to the body. It is particularly effective as Rasayana (Rejuvenative) herb.

    2.Internal use of Amalaki powder in the dose of 3-5 gm daily improves eyesight, cleanses mouth, and also provides rejuvenative effects.

    3.External use of paste of Amalaki on scalp provides luster and shine to the hair .

    4.Internal use of Amalaki in any form helps in increasing immunity.

    Summary:

    Amla is an extensively used herb in making ayurvedic medicines. Amla is supposed to rejuvenate all the organs and systems of the body, provide strength and wellness. According to ayurvedic experts regular usage of amla will make us live more then 100 years like a youth.

    Amla keeps us away from all the diseases by boosting our immune system.