Manufacture building products from porcelain, faience, semi-porcelain and majolica
Ceramics has been known since ancient times and is probably the first man-made artificial material. Take a walk in the excavations of any ancient site of ancient settlement. What do you see in abundance under your feet? As a result of the heat treatment of the ceramic, the material is almost eternal oh, if not for its fragility! It is no accident that one of the most important methods of dating in archeology is based precisely on the classification of ceramic shards. Already from the definition it is clear that this is the most ancient type of ceramics.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Ceramics Manufacturing Facility
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Special manufacturing equipment for ceramics
In ancient Egypt, objects created with faience were considered magical, filled with the undying shimmer of the sun, and imbued with the powers of rebirth. For Egyptians, the sculptures, vessels, jewelry, and ritual objects made of faience glimmered with the brilliance of eternity. While faience is made of common materials—quartz, alkaline salts, lime, and mineral-based colorants—it maintained important status among precious stones and metals.
Faience may have been developed to simulate highly prized and rare semi-precious blue stones like turquoise. This man-made substance allowed the Egyptians to make a wide variety of objects covered in shiny, bright blue glaze—a color that was closely linked with fertility, life, and the gleaming qualities of the sun.
Faience first appeared at the end of the fifth millennium B. It may have been invented in the ancient Near East following the development of an alkaline glaze on quartz stones. Its technological refinement and major triumphs, however, were surely accomplished in Egypt. Some of the earliest faience objects made in Egypt were beads, soon followed by small votive temple offerings and royal tomb objects. Faience was inlaid into furniture and into walls as tomb and temple decoration The most recognizable forms of faience are small figures of gods Maiolica is earthenware known for its bright colors applied on white tin-opacified glaze; Egyptian faience is neither earthenware nor tin-glazed.
Egyptian faience is a ceramic material with a siliceous body and a brightly colored glaze. In addition to silica, faience also contains alkaline salts the source of which was either natron or plant ash , minor amounts of lime, and a metallic colorant.
Although faience was made in a range of bright colors, the turquoise blue color so characteristic of the material is created with copper. During the firing process, the alkali acting as a flux and the lime acting as a stabilizer react with the silica in the core to form a glaze on the surface.
Observed in cross-section, the microstructure of faience reveals at least two different layers of material: an inner core and an outer layer of glaze. The core is friable and porous, and is made up of particles that can vary in size from fine to coarse. These particles tend to be white but can be very pale blue, green, brown, or gray, depending on impurities contained in source materials. The bulk of this core material is made up of angular quartz grains without any visible clay particles, and always has the appearance of being artificially powdered.
The quartz grains in the core are coated and held in place by small amounts of a soda-lime-silicate glass. This interstitial glass appears colorless and transparent in cross-section, but in the glaze on the exterior surface one observes a very different optical effect: translucency.
The crushed quartz core visible beneath the glaze creates an irregular white ground that scatters the light. The result is a diffuse, almost variegated appearance of depth that closely resembles the optical qualities of turquoise. The way light hits the interface between the core and the glaze gives an impression of brightness as well as translucency. Steatite, a soft, easily carved stone to which similar glazes were applied, is much smoother at this interface and does not scatter light in the same way faience does This distinction might offer one explanation as to why faience, which is difficult to form, might have replaced glazed steatite as a preferred method for producing prized objects.
Silica could have been acquired from fine desert sands or from quartz rock, quartz pebbles, or silicaceous limestone, all of which are abundant in Egypt. Quartz sand of the purity contained in faience cores is extremely rare. Quartz rock occurs as veins in igneous rocks of the eastern Egyptian desert. Such rock would have produced good material for faience, but it was not easily accessible and would have required significant labor to acquire. White quartz pebbles seem the most likely source of silica for faience, as they are plentiful in the desert and easy to acquire.
Mining and carving of granite or sandstone might have provided a significant source of silica to the faience industry. Some scholars have proposed that the raw materials for faience were obtained as a by-product of hard stone drilling. Copper tools were used with abrasive sand to drill or saw granite and hard limestone artifacts. The waste powders from this process consisted of quartz and lime from the limestone, and also contained particles of copper from the drill, potentially providing a ready source for the materials to make faience.
Egyptian soil is rich in saline substances such as niter, natron, alum, rock salt, and sea salts—all of which could have provided the alkaline component for faience. Niter forms as an efflorescence on the surface of the soil during dry periods. Natron is collected from the saline encrustations of dry lakebeds of Wadi Natrun in the west of the Nile Delta.
Rock salt and alum are mined from the earth. The dry ingredients are mixed with water to create a paste that is then formed into the desired shape. As soon as the paste is formed, one starts to notice the difference between faience and clay. Faience is thixotropic, which means that the paste appears to be a solid, but becomes more fluid and slumps as it is modeled.
A paste made of corn starch and water exhibits similar behavior. Not only is faience paste thixotropic, it is also nonplastic. It cracks when bent and has little ability to support its own weight. Small amulets and beads could be formed by hand-modeling, but one of the most common ways to shape faience was with clay molds, as is evidenced by the multitude of faience molds found in the archaeological record The paste can also be worked into a slab by shaking and patting to create flat objects such as inlays or tiles.
Another technique for working with faience is to form the paste around an organic core that burns away during firing. A layer of paste was either modeled around the combustible core or it was dipped into a slurry of faience ingredients. There are examples of hollow faience fruit that were made by coating actual fruits. The holes in these objects correspond to where the stem was located.
Larger objects made of Egyptian faience exist, but are less common. Such objects would have been a challenge to create and were likely hand-modeled rather than made in molds.
Examples of large faience objects indicate the level of mastery achieved in this medium and reflect the fact that faience makers had an intimate understanding of their material and firing methods.
In addition to the efflorescence method described above, there are two other glazing techniques: direct application and cementation. Direct application is similar to the modern-day method of glazing a ceramic object in which a glaze slurry is applied to a clay object. The glaze is applied to the pre-formed faience object by brushing, dipping, or pouring. Cementation is a self-glazing technique in which a formed, unglazed faience core is buried in a glazing powder.
This powder contains a high percentage of flux, which partially melts and reacts with the silica in the core to form a glaze. After firing, the glazing powder is broken away from the object without sticking to the surface. Whatever method is chosen for shaping and glazing, the dull, dry pieces must be fired in a kiln to reveal their brilliant color. During firing, the alkaline components e. Most ancient faience objects have glaze covering their entire surface, and most show no traces that indicate how they were supported in the kiln during firing.
Small conical and spherical kiln supports have been found, but there is little other archaeological evidence of kiln furniture. The lack of archaeological evidence relating to firing makes it difficult for modern scholars of faience to reconstruct how the kilns were stacked.
Some have suggested that faience workers dusted their kiln shelves with a nonwetting powder such as hydrated lime, ash, or even cementation powder. Close study of Egyptian faience reveals a wide range in the quality of objects in terms of both modeling and firing techniques. The ancient Egyptians placed a high value on this medium because of the brilliant blue color that could be created with humble, readily available components. Consequently, Egyptian faience persisted for an astonishing four millennia in the Nile valley.
Riccardelli, Carolyn. Friedman, Florence Dunn, ed. Gifts of the Nile: Ancient Egyptian Faience. Nicholson, Paul T. Egyptian Faience and Glass. Buckinghamshire: Shire Publications, Vandiver, Pamela. Olin and Alan D. Franklin, pp. Washington, D. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. See works of art. Works of Art Essay In ancient Egypt, objects created with faience were considered magical, filled with the undying shimmer of the sun, and imbued with the powers of rebirth.
Citation Riccardelli, Carolyn. Further Reading Friedman, Florence Dunn, ed. Chronology Egypt, — B. Egypt, — B. Egypt, B. See Also All essays, Egyptian Art.
Seventeenth and eighteenth-century Delftware was inspired by many other ceramic centers. Sources of influence included Southern European wares, such as maiolica and Faenza, the much coveted Chinese porcelain wares and later the Northern European ceramic centers, such as Nevers and Meissen. Of course, Delftware was also inspirational for these same ceramic centers. Some examples of Chinese porcelain retain Delftware marks, and Meissen potters adapted the techniques of red stoneware objects after visiting the factories in Delft. The Delft industry further influenced faience factories in Northern France throughout the eighteenth and even nineteenth centuries.
Majolica, faience, and delftware are terms that describe glazed earthenware objects. Yet there are distinguishing factors among these products that are often misunderstood; this article provides a brief historical overview in an attempt to create some order out of the confusion. By the first half of the fifteenth century the cities of Brugge and Antwerp in the Southern Netherlands, now Belgium, were importing Italian earthenware through their trade connections with Italy, Spain, and Portugal. Majolica, as the pottery came to be known, is an earthenware product coated with a highly translucent lead glaze on the back, which is rendered an opaque white on the front by the addition of tin oxide. The Italian city of Faenza was a recognized center for earthenware production.
Note for Building Material Construction Planning - BMCP By p patil
Ceramic Vase - 9 pictures Photoshop Contest Gallery - 9 entries. Contest Options all comments high resolution view. Level: apprentice. Entries: 8. Contest Directions: Photoshop this image of ceramic vase click to download any way you wish. Some examples are: re-designing this ceramic vase, giving it some paint-job, merging this ceramic vase with some objects or animals, putting the ceramic vase into some new environment, using this ceramic vase image in advertisements, movies, paintings, etc. These are just some ideas.
A-Z of Ceramics
The history of the iconic Dutch faience produced mainly in the western Dutch city of Delft is drawn up in many publications. Museums and studenst in the Netherlands and around the world are continuously researching certain aspects of a product the played such a pivoting role in the history of arts, of the first encounters between Europe and the Far East and of the comencement of the production of faience and porcelain in other European cities. Both Meissen and Sevres drew on the knowledge built over centuries in Delft. In the first half of the 15th century, mercantile cities such as Brugge Bruges and Antwerp in the southern Netherlands now Belgium became familiar with earthenware from southern Europe through both trade and political contacts with Italy, Spain and Portugal.
With the introduction of this many-coloured Chinese porcelain into Europe the same practice was eagerly followed by our European potters, and a new palette of colours and fresh styles of decoration soon arose amongst us. Painting in on-glaze colours, being executed on the fired glaze, resembles glass painting, and it generally offers a striking contrast both in technique and colour-quality to the painting executed in colours under the glaze. In the former the work can be highly finished and the most mechanical execution is possible, but the colours are neither so rich nor so brilliant as under-glaze colours, nor have they the same softness as is given by the slight spread of the under-glaze colour when the glaze is melted over it.
Ceramic Vase - 9 pictures
In ancient Egypt, objects created with faience were considered magical, filled with the undying shimmer of the sun, and imbued with the powers of rebirth. For Egyptians, the sculptures, vessels, jewelry, and ritual objects made of faience glimmered with the brilliance of eternity. While faience is made of common materials—quartz, alkaline salts, lime, and mineral-based colorants—it maintained important status among precious stones and metals. Faience may have been developed to simulate highly prized and rare semi-precious blue stones like turquoise.
Pottery , one of the oldest and most widespread of the decorative arts , consisting of objects made of clay and hardened with heat. The objects made are commonly useful ones, such as vessels for holding liquids or plates or bowls from which food can be served. Clay , the basic material of pottery, has two distinctive characteristics: it is plastic i. Firing also protects the clay body against the effects of water. This forms a nonporous opaque body known as stoneware. In this section, earthenware is used to denote all pottery substances that are not vitrified and are therefore slightly porous and coarser than vitrified materials.
THE CERAMIC ART.
Historicism and Art Nouveau in nineteenth-century decorative arts were the result of a fellowship that developed soon after between science, industry, art, and education, in part to supply the rapidly growing industrial society with contemporary-style home furnishings. The decoration of these objects was based on the intellectual foundations of historicism: reverence and adaptation of past historical forms and designs combined with innovation and the expansion of available technologies. In the case of ceramics, nineteenth-century scientific research at European factories promoted experimentation by ceramic craftsmen to revive forgotten historical forms, production techniques, and firing processes, which ultimately made possible the development of a modern style. Toward the end of the century, chemists and technicians with decades of experience were at work in the applied arts industries, and artists, by then weary of historicism, began to translate new aesthetic visions into Art Nouveau. With the steady advance and technical modernization of European factories, fueled by financial competition among applied arts manufactories, came an expectation for these factories to create lasting innovations in form and design. From to , when decorative arts were often characterized by historicism, the development of new materials, production methods, and technological refinements, coupled with a broad aesthetic and decorative vocabulary, exceeded similar developments from previous centuries and remains unsurpassed today. In the second half of the nineteenth century, advancing industrialization, explosive population growth in the cities, and an economic upswing despite competition between manufactories supported the visions of applied art entrepreneurs such as those who founded the Zsolnay factory in
Ceramics from the Greek word "keramos", which means clay are products that are produced by sintering clays and mixtures of clays with mineral additives. As a result of heat treatment, ceramics acquires properties that determine its widespread use in various sectors of the national economy. Ceramics is unparalleled in terms of the physicochemical, mechanical, and artistic and aesthetic properties.
Egyptian Faience: Technology and Production
Ceramics has been known since ancient times and is probably the first man-made artificial material. Take a walk in the excavations of any ancient site of ancient settlement. What do you see in abundance under your feet?
China painting , or porcelain painting , [a] is the decoration of glazed porcelain objects such as plates, bowls, vases or statues. The body of the object may be hard-paste porcelain , developed in China in the 7th or 8th century, or soft-paste porcelain often bone china , developed in 18th-century Europe. The broader term ceramic painting includes painted decoration on lead-glazed earthenware such as creamware or tin-glazed pottery such as maiolica or faience. Typically the body is first fired in a kiln to convert it into a hard porous biscuit or bisque.
Despite the widespread use of modern materials that have a long service life and good consumer qualities, ceramic products are still relevant. Ceramic dishes are fragile and quite expensive, compared, for example, with plastic. However, good thermal conductivity and, most importantly, environmental safety of this material compensates for all its shortcomings. The competition in the ceramic tableware market is high, including among Russian manufacturers. The situation is complicated by the fact that the capacity of this segment of the Russian market can be determined only approximately, since it is part of the market for household goods and is evaluated in conjunction with other segments.
The Kuznetsov porcelain factory in Dulyovo porcelain works is one of the most famous Russian and former Soviet porcelain manufacturers. Its products are better known as Dulevo porcelain. Mikhail Mikhailovich Adamovich also designed for the factory