Manufacture ware cement
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- Concrete Terrazzo Bathroom Sinks
- Search Suppliers Data of USA
- Top Cement Companies In South India
- Environmental, Health, and Safety Guidelines
- Gas permeability in concrete containing recycled ceramic sanitary ware aggregate
- Using Ceramic Materials in Ecoefficient Concrete and Precast Concrete Products
- Properties of concrete manufactured with use of ceramic sanitary ware waste as aggregate
Concrete Terrazzo Bathroom Sinks
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Timothy D Akpenpuun. Ademola Ajayi-Banji. Ajayi-Banji1, D. Jenyo1, M. Adegbile1, T. Akpenpuun1, J. Bello1, A. Ajimo2 and S. However, utilization of this waste in masonry unit production could be a plausible option to solve this menace, particularly, in its ability to enhance masonry unit compressive strength.
In this study, ceramic ware waste was utilized for hollow masonry unit production and three different natural fine aggregate to ceramic aggregate mix ratios of , , and were examined. Furthermore, the cement to total aggregate mix ratio considered was Sequel to the process of aggregates mixing, casting, and subsequently demoulding, the masonry units were cured for 28 days prior to inspection for compressive test parameters.
Results indicated that masonry unit with natural sand to ceramic waste mix ratio of has the highest crushing strength at peak, yield and break point which were The compressive stress at peak and break were 6.
Ceramics ware waste from demolition and construction waste is a suitable co-aggregate in hollow masonry unit production. Keywords: Construction and demolition waste, ceramic ware waste, reuse, hollow masonry unit, compressive strength, natural fine aggregate 1. Usually, the waste emanates from neighbourhood where simple structures are demolished and replaced with new and gigantic ones like stories and skyscrapers that can accommodate the growing population demand.
Replacement of old and dilapidated buildings with aesthetically improved ones has equally contributed to the generation. Other salient factors contributive to the waste generation are fire incident and wars Ali and Moon, Hence, the waste will continue to grow in volume and pose threat to the environment except pragmatic steps are employed for its judicious utilization. Composition of construction and demolition wastes are ceramics ware, metal, wood, concrete, stone, related aggregates, glass, plastic, asphalt, plaster, rubbish, paper and others.
The wastes are often landfilled though this common disposal option is neither economical nor environment friendly. Recently, the non-biological wastes have found unique applications in our society beyond disposal. One important use is as storage bank for nuclear wastes Devanathan et al. Another prominent application of ceramic waste ware was as binding agent in concrete production due to the pozzolanic property Kenna and Archbold, Other uses are as fine and coarse aggregates for construction and fillers Amitkumar et al.
Production of masonry unit is another feasible area of application. Masonry units are used in places like Malaysia as noise barrier Herni et al.
They are employed globally in construction industries due to the fire resistance ability, good heat insulating properties and chemical resistance compared with wood and steel CIGR, Though the low tensile strengths when compared with steel and wood have been the primary challenge of using this construction material especially for load bearing functions. Hence, this study intends to investigate the effect of ceramic ware waste as a partial substitution for natural sand aggregates in hollow masonry production and equally inspect the quality in terms of compressive strength.
Other substances that have been utilized in masonry unit production are rice husk Chukwudedelu et al. Masonry unit in Nigeria is either in the hollow or solid form.
This is the major construction material for all kinds of buildings in Nigeria as compared with some part of the western world where emphasis is placed on wood. For the purpose of this study, the scale of hollow block considered to Nigerian industrial standard NIS 87 was 1: 3. Visible biological materials were sifted with 2 mm diameter plastic sieve from the natural sand to ensure the aggregate was free from organic materials.
Standard methods were employed to determine the natural fine aggregate composition, properties and sand type. Ceramic aggregate was obtained from white single fired sanitary ware haphazardly discarded in dumpsites within Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State, Nigeria Figure 1. The sanitary ware was crushed into 0. Ceramic and natural sand aggregate proportions were varied into three mix ratios, other than the control. Physical properties of the co-ballasts such as specific gravity, moisture content, bulk density and porosity were inspected using standard methods.
Water to cement ratio was 0. The choice of these ratios was based on recommendation from literatures Afolayan et al. This formwork dimension was of the Nigerian industrial standard sandcrete endorsed by the Nigerian Industrial standard NIS 87 The formwork was filled and compacted manually to avoid air spaces within the poured mixture that may reduce strength of masonry unit.
The fresh masonry units were stored temporarily in a well-ventilated shed. The blocks were cured by submerging in potable water for 28 days Figure 4. Kaosol recommended this curing age in a study on water treatment sludge reuse for hollow concrete block production. Cured masonry units were carefully removed after each curing period, stacked to dry and stored in a well- ventilated shed. Blocks produced from each mix ratios were duplicated. Each block was labelled based on aggregate mix using oil-based paint applied with a soft brush.
Densities of the masonry units were investigated using standard methods. Specific gravity of the aggregate was in line with Amitkumar et al. Organic carbon and organic matter resident in the soil were less than 2. This is an indication of soil type suitability for construction purpose, as most organic materials decompose with time, creating pore within dried structures. Density after moulding increased between 1. Reduction in density prior to crushing could be because of handling.
Decrease in weight could also be attributed to the curing process that ensures the complete hydration of the masonry unit and water loss. Solely natural sand aggregate block had the least density. This is an indication that hydration process influences the density of ceramic-based masonry unit than purely natural sand block. The densities after moulding was higher than the values obtained for concrete hollow block with the inclusion of coconut fiber cum shell and commercial concrete hollow block documented by Ganiron et.
The pore and rough surface will possibly enhance adhesion of the mix. This suggests that hollow masonry unit produced from ceramic-sand aggregates might have higher compressive strength and possibly be a better product than solely natural sand aggregate blocks.
The three levels of energies peak, yield and break increased with ceramic aggregate increase. The crushing force was higher than the value documented by Maroliya despite the mix ratios of used in the study. This was also greater than the values reported for commercialized concrete hollow blocks reported by Ganiron et.
However, it is very close to the force required to crush commercialized hollow bock concrete with the addition of fiber and coconut shell. Other possible reason for the difference was the block dimension.
Crushing energies in this study were greater than values observed by Chukwudedelu et. The author obtained crushing energy between 7. Biological material introduced by the author seems to be the major constituent that might have affected the crushing energy. However, higher energy required in this study to crush the ceramic-sand aggregate blocks shows that ceramic aggregate is a better option than rice husk in terms of strength in hollow masonry unit production, though rice husk block evidently has light weight advantage.
Stress result followed the same trend with density. The stress at peak, yield and break for the ceramic-sand aggregate blocks were greater than that of natural sand aggregate blocks by The greatest yield stress increment based on mix ratio occurred at M20 about Stress at peak for this mix ratio was the highest produced. Masonry units with aggregate mix of M20 has highest stress value 6. The stresses obtained compressive strength were lower than the values obtained by Barbosa and Hanai in a study on strength and deformation of hollow block with dimension x x mm.
However, it was greater than the values obtained for pure concrete hollow block and concrete hollow block with the addition of coconut fiber and shell Ganiron et al. Difference in block size was the obvious explanation for the disparity. Despite this, the compressive strength for the ceramic masonry units met the British and Nigerian standard 3.
It equally met the A 3. This almost doubled the value for pure natural sand aggregate blocks. This stated elastic modulus is the only value in Table 5 greater than the one reported by Ganiron et al. Though with respect to deflection from these masonry unit category, the least deflection was observed for M20 Table 5.
Hemant et al. Non-linearity in the blocks were more obvious and pronounced when ultimate failure loads were reached Figures 8 — Therefore, stress-strain pattern is subjective to the type of masonry unit under consideration. This was due to inconsistent pattern observed as compared with other mix ratios. Graphs for M10 were equally not presented.
Strong nexus exits between the various natural sand-ceramic mix ratio and the compressive test outputs such as compressive force and energy required to crush masonry units.
The correlation coefficients R2 were more than 0. This is an indication that crushing energy and force values under this mix ratio conditions can be predicted. Hollow masonry units from ceramics and fine aggregates have more suitable compressive strength than pure natural sand ballast blocks. However, M30 did not follow the same trend as other modified hollow blocks from the compressive strength indices investigated.
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The binder contains e. SiO2, B2O3, alkali component or the like and is made ceramic by heating to melt. Next, the kneaded material is molded, hardened, dried, glazed and heat treated at deg. C for min.
From top: sanitary ware ceramic, red ceramic, and tiling glazed ceramic. Concrete is a composite material made of aggregates bound together with cement. While the list of materials used for making cement is pretty standard—mainly limestone and clay —the materials used for aggregates can vary immensely—especially in recent years. One tactic the concrete industry employs to advance sustainable construction is reusing waste for aggregates. Traditionally, aggregates are made from materials like crushed stone and sand extracted from larger rock formations.
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Comparing with the other artificial stone, it can be directly used in exterior wall dry hanging and outside public spaces, such as business street, passageway and water side. We can incorporate a wide variety of both conventional and innovative aggregate materials with unlimited color. It gives designers and architects a range of option. With a variety of surface treatment methods, it can be made into multiple effects such as polished, honed, ancient, sandblasted surface, and blind lane. It can be made into double layers of surface and bottom according to customer demand, ensuring quality and effectively reducing cost. Brown Terrazzo Stone Tiles. Pink Terrazzo Tiles.
Environmental, Health, and Safety Guidelines
The industrial and economic growth witnessed in recent decades has brought with it an increase in the generation of different types of waste urban, industrial, construction, etc. At the same time, these practices represent an economic cost. However, if waste is managed correctly it can be converted into a resource which contributes to savings in raw materials, conservation of natural resources and the climate, and promotes sustainable development, all of which complies with strategies for sustainable development within the European Union and Spain. Within the European Union, Spain is the leading manufacturer of ceramics:
The hollow ceramic membranes may have a small cross-sectional area of about 1. CNA Preparation method of silicon carbide porous ceramic using yeast powder as pore forming agent. CNC Filtration type mold and method for producing ceramic sintered body using mold. US A structure for use in high temperature applications and including a porous ceramic material consisting essentially of about percent by weight iron or magnesium stabilized aluminum titanate AlTiO5 and about percent by weight.
Gas permeability in concrete containing recycled ceramic sanitary ware aggregate
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Using Ceramic Materials in Ecoefficient Concrete and Precast Concrete Products
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YTL Land saw it as a time of altruistic opportunity, stepping in to fill the need for low-cost housing around the country while serving the population as a responsible and far-sighted property developer. Through its subsidiaries, the Company manufactures and sells ready-mixed concrete, dry. We haven't been told yet of the dividends from our equity which we got out of the
Properties of concrete manufactured with use of ceramic sanitary ware waste as aggregate
Authors: A. Ajayi-Banji , M. Adegbile , T.
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Census of Manufactures, Statistics by industry. United States. Bureau of the Census. Groups of industries. Employment for the October 15 pay roll period.
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