Production manufacture wooden building products and standard houses
Modular buildings and modular homes are prefabricated buildings or houses that consist of repeated sections called modules. Installation of the prefabricated sections is completed on site. Prefabricated sections are sometimes placed using a crane. The modules can be placed side-by-side, end-to-end, or stacked, allowing a variety of configurations and styles.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: What is Cross Laminated Timber (CLT)? - The B1M
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The hottest new thing in sustainable building is, uh, wood
The many, many benefits of using wood in place of concrete and steel. Architects, builders, and sustainability advocates are all abuzz over a new building material they say could substantially reduce greenhouse gas GHG emissions in the building sector, slash the waste, pollution, and costs associated with construction, and create a more physically, psychologically, and aesthetically healthy built environment.
Trees have been used to build structures since prehistory, but especially after disasters like the Great Chicago Fire of , wood came to be seen as unsafe and unstable relative to the two materials that have since become staples of the construction industry worldwide: concrete and steel.
However, a new way of using wood has put the material back in the spotlight. In a nutshell, it involves sticking pieces of soft wood — generally conifers like pine, spruce, or fir, but also sometimes deciduous species such as birch, ash, and beech — together to form larger pieces. Mass timber is a generic term that encompasses products of various sizes and functions, like glue-laminated glulam beams, laminated veneer lumber LVL , nail-laminated timber NLT , and dowel-laminated timber DLT.
But the most common and most familiar form of mass timber, the one that has opened up the most new architectural possibilities, is cross-laminated timber CLT. To create CLT, lumber boards that have been trimmed and kiln-dried are glued atop one another in layers, crosswise, with the grain of each layer facing against the grain of the layer adjacent.
Stacking boards together this way can create large slabs, up to a foot thick and as large as feet-long by feet-wide, though the average is something more like 10 by At this point, the size of slabs is restricted less by manufacturing limitations than by transportation limitations. Slabs of wood this large can match or exceed the performance of concrete and steel. CLT can be used to make floors, walls, ceilings — entire buildings. I talked to lots of people who are extremely excited about mass timber, both for its architectural qualities and for its potential to help decarbonize the building sector, and a few raised important cautions.
CLT was first developed in the early s in Austria, where softwood forestry is extremely common. It was championed by researcher Gerhard Schickhofer, who is still active and who won a prestigious forestry prize last year for his work to standardize and secure popular support for the new material.
In Austria and in Europe generally, where it spread in the s, CLT was developed for use in residential construction. Europeans do not like the flimsy wood stick-frame construction used for so many US houses; they prefer more solid materials like concrete or brick.
CLT was meant to make residential construction more sustainable. A set of new changes that will enable mass timber structures up to 18 stories tall have been accepted and are expected to be formalized into the newest IBC code in The Pacific Northwest is understandably excited about a possible shift to wooden building materials, as it is home to copious forests and idled sawmills. Plenty of local communities would welcome new demand.
While CLT is continuing to explode in Europe and is accelerating in Canada, it remains hampered in the US by anachronistic and overly prescriptive building codes, limited domestic supply, and the small-c conservative thinking of the building trades. On the supply front, Vaagen Brothers , a well-known Washington sawmill, has already retooled around CLT; other mills are expected to follow. A company called Katerra recently opened the largest CLT manufacturing facility in North America in Spokane, Washington, with state lawmakers on hand to celebrate.
That may help mass timber get going in earnest in the region. Our state leads in so many ways, and now Washington will lead the nation in manufacturing cross-laminated timber for buildings with the new katerrainc facility in Spokane. But because they are one-offs, they require a lot of extra work in testing, designing, and securing permits. Nonetheless, the growing enthusiasm of builders and advocates seems to be chipping away at the resistance. Why are they so geared up? Especially in the US, people associate wood in buildings with stick-frame construction, 2X4s and plywood, which are flammable AF.
The thing is, large, solid, compressed masses of wood are actually quite difficult to ignite. Hold a match up to a large log some time. In the case of fire, the outer layer of mass timber will tend to char in a predictable way that effectively self-extinguishes and shields the interior, allowing it to retain structural integrity for several hours in even intense fire. The Forest Service has also done extensive blast testing of CLT, which it passed with flying colors, opening the door to its use in military facilities.
The bottom line is that all building materials have to meet code, and CLT meets code for fire safety. Your building has to be torn down. Roughly 11 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions come from building materials and construction; another 28 percent comes from building operations, which mostly involve energy. Determining the full lifecycle impact of mass timber on carbon emissions is a tricky business. At least three carbon effects must be tallied up.
First, some greenhouse gas emissions are released by the supply chain, starting with forestry. In logging, soil carbon is disturbed and released, plant and wood waste is generated that eventually rots and releases carbon, and emissions are generated by the vehicles and machinery necessary to cut the wood, transport it to the mill, and treat it.
Second, there is some amount of carbon embedded in the timber itself, where it is sequestered in buildings that could last anywhere from 50 to hundreds of years.
Though the exact amount will depend on tree species, forestry practices, transportation costs, and a number of other factors, Green says a good rule of thumb is that one cubic meter of CLT wood sequesters roughly one tonne 1. Third and most significantly, substituting mass timber for concrete and steel avoids the carbon embedded in those materials, which is substantial.
Cement and concrete manufacture are responsible for around 8 percent of global GHG emissions , more than any country save the US and China. The global iron and steel industry is responsible for another 5 percent. Something like half a ton of CO2 is emitted to manufacture a ton of concrete; 2 tons of CO2 are emitted in the manufacture of a ton of steel. All those embodied emissions are avoided when CLT is substituted.
Exactly how those three carbon effects balance out will depend on individual cases, but research suggests that, for all but the most poorly managed forests, the overall impact of using CLT in place of concrete and steel will be a reduction in GHGs. It allows buildings to be constructed faster, with lower labor costs and less waste. If provided detailed plans by architects and designers, the factory can fabricate, e. It virtually eliminates material waste — there are no door and window cutouts to throw away because the wood was never put there in the first place.
With computer-guided fabrication, wood is placed only where it is needed. Because these prefabricated pieces can be assembled a few at a time, in sequence, with relatively little labor, they can be shipped to the construction site on a just-in-time basis, avoiding massive on-site inventory and minimizing on-site disruption.
Construction projects can be squeezed into tight, idiosyncratic urban spaces. Even tall towers can be constructed within weeks, with low labor costs. Mass timber will help change that. The performance of mass timber in earthquakes has been much tested and tested and tested and has proven remarkably good. While concrete simply cracks in earthquakes, which means concrete buildings must be demolished and replaced, wood buildings can be repaired after earthquakes.
Mass timber is also lighter and can be built on urban land, e. It is appealing on a primal level, a connection to nature. Architect Susan Jones of Atelierjones LLC oversaw the building of one of the first and still only CLT single-family residences — her home of five years in Seattle, built to super-efficient passivhaus standards. It was featured in Dwell Magazine. Jones says, all things considered, building her home with CLT added about 8 percent to total costs.
Forests in the West have become tinderboxes, in part thanks to climate change and in part thanks to years of poor management. They are filled with trees dead or weakened from pine beetle infestations. Decades of overzealous fire protection have left them choked with closely clustered, small-diameter trees. The land is being permanently scarred. This has given Franz an idea : use weak and small trees, for which there is no other market, for mass timber. Logs with tops as small as 4.
A sufficiently large market for mass timber would create funding for thinning those trees out. As a bonus, Franz wants to use mass timber to build low-cost affordable housing on publicly managed land. Softwood mostly pine, spruce, or fir forests in the US are predominantly found in the Northwest and the Southeast, and the communities that live and work in them have been struggling, especially since the housing crash and the great recession.
New demand for softwood could help reopen some of the closed mills and revive some of those communities, aligning their interests with a Green New Deal-style program of national revitalization.
In his TED talk, Green notes that billions of people worldwide lack homes — a half-million in North America — and will need to be housed in the coming century, largely in cities. If all that urban housing is accomplished with concrete and steel, the climate is hosed. A more sustainable alternative must be found. And wood is the only material sufficiently abundant and renewable to do the job. But Build With Strength is, ahem, sponsored by the concrete industry.
By and large, architects and builders are excited about mass timber, as are timber businesses and communities, timber-state politicians, climate hawks concerned about the carbon impact of building, and city officials looking for ways to accelerate decarbonization and win some good PR. A material that can be grown in abundance, creates rural jobs, reduces construction waste and labor costs, and slows the growth of concrete and steel seems like a win-win-win.
The good-faith reservations that do exist are about the supply chain, and they come in two forms. First, protecting and properly managing forests is a huge part of fighting climate change and preserving a livable world. Intact forest ecosystems provide not only carbon sequestration but ecosystem services, wild animal habitat, recreation, and beauty.
Environmentalists worry that North American forests are not sufficiently protected to weather a sharp uptick in demand. There are two competing certification standards for harvested wood: the Sustainable Forestry Initiative SFI , sponsored by the industry, and the Forest Stewardship Council FSC , an independent body created by environmentalists. Unsurprisingly, the FSC standards are considerably more strict regarding clearcutting, pesticide use, and more.
Though the SFI has its defenders and has made reforms recently, environmentalists remain unimpressed and several architects and builders I talked to strongly preferred to source FSC wood. Second and relatedly, some environmentalists worry that the sequestration benefits of wood as a building material are being overestimated.
The International Institute for Sustainable Development issued a report last year looking at gaps and weaknesses in lifecycle analysis as applied to building materials, wood in particular. Specifically, it said, the most uncertain parts of most LCAs have to do with carbon sequestered in wood and carbon released at the end of life — two issues of central importance to mass timber.
Numerous environmental groups, led by the Sierra Club, signed an open letter to California state officials in , urging caution about mass timber. Notably, they did not oppose it outright. They argued that, thanks to current forestry practices, its climate benefits have been exaggerated.
How do you design an accounting system that incentivizes climate smart forestry? Critical issue moving forward There are many ways to reduce the environmental and climate impact of the building sector, some of which are arguably more important, at least for now, than the embodied carbon of materials.
To emerge stronger for the next upturn, organizations in the agribusiness, processes, or building materials industries turn to BCG strategists and experts. One of them will be a weakening global economy, which will generally help to suppress further price increases. If the many fervent boosters of this new construction material are right, however, it is only one of the first mass timber buildings among This time we will try to investigate and predict the upcoming trends in interior design for based on analysis of colors, materials, furniture designs and shapes that we discover and observe in project and designers and architects that capture our attention through the years. New York Build is the leading construction show at the Javits Center and covers all sectors of the construction industry.
WWL Houses has developed well proven know-how in order to provide high quantity timber houses on large scale. This involves production and assembly of house components walls, floors and roofs in controlled environment of the factory, which are then transported and assembled on site. WWL Modular houses are so well designed that they are perfectly suitable for wide range of purposes- as simple apartments for students, holiday accommodations, and can easily be transformed into multistory buildings. These house can be easily transported and assembled.
Framing lumber, also known as structural wood, is the grade of wood used for house framing studs, Larsen Trusses for Double-Stud walls , headers, roof trusses and floor joists, etc. Its technical characteristics make it perfectly suitable when large spans are necessary. The list below outlines the different types of wood used as framing lumber most commonly used for house construction and increasingly in timber frames for multi-family low to mid-rise construction throughout the US and Canada. A constant source of confusion amongst DIY Home builders is lumber sizes, as commercially available 2x4" is actually 1. The general rule of thumb: any width listed as 2" will actually be 1. The reason for this is planing; some true dimensions can be found at lumber yards, referred to as 'rough' lumber or "rough sawn" as they are unplaned wood. Here's another confusing anomoly when looking at choosing wood for framing, Canadian Lumber Standard timber commonly referred to as CLS wood timber became popular in Canada for building strong and durable timber-framed homes but is rarely referred to as CLS lumber in North America. This timber is usually manufactured from kiln-dried fir, pine, or spruce. It is then treated, planed, and finally finished with rounded edges to create accurate and precise tolerances. This wood is also ideal for internal stud walling since it is surfaced on all of its four sides and it has rounded corners.
Skip to main content. Timber construction as an enabler of low-carbon property development. Furthermore, in addition to the construction providing good heat insulation, the payback time for the finance and energy used, and the carbon dioxide emissions generated in their manufacture should be sufficiently short. Timber construction is high up on the list when it comes to climate-favourable construction. By reducing emissions by the built environment we can slow down the climate change brought about by Mankind considerably and at the same time reduce its harmful impacts.
Lumber choices for wood frame construction - choosing timber for framing & building homes
Construction , also called building construction , the techniques and industry involved in the assembly and erection of structures, primarily those used to provide shelter. Construction is an ancient human activity. It began with the purely functional need for a controlled environment to moderate the effects of climate. Constructed shelters were one means by which human beings were able to adapt themselves to a wide variety of climates and become a global species.
Custom Homes Timberframe Passive House. Passive House is the most uncompromising building energy standard in the world. The durability and comfort of a Bensonwood Passive House is now a modern standard for living. We build homes that matter on a grander scale, enhancing their communities and improving society. Homes that are gentle on the environment and a welcoming retreat for its occupants. They allow the owners to live a full life: to dream, love and create.
Mike Hompertz recently visited the job site and recorded this video. Please browse this website to find out how BuildaKit can assist you with your insulated timber frame home. If you need assistance, Buy a Test Kit has detailed information on getting you started. We manufacture kit build houses in the form of timber frame buildings and also offer a specialist service in the manufacture and complete construction of large caravans, mobile homes, park homes and log cabins. Whether you are looking for something for you or a gift they are a perfect way to start the journey. Prefabrication allows us to quantify and streamline the time spent on assembling a panel system for a modular building.
Small house living is an easy way to live more sustainably. The amazing Mr. Don't worry, we didn't leave out small cabanas, cottages, bungalows, sheds, etc.
Embodied energy is the energy consumed by all of the processes associated with the production of a building, from the mining and processing of natural resources to manufacturing, transport and product delivery. Embodied energy does not include the operation and disposal of the building material, which would be considered in a life cycle approach. The single most important factor in reducing the impact of embodied energy is to design long life, durable and adaptable buildings.
Modular buildings are a broad class of prefabricated buildings. Modular buildings are made up of movable sections known as modules and other factory-made components. Unlike traditionally constructed buildings, modular buildings, also known as prefab buildings, prefabricated buildings, or pre-engineered buildings, can move from concept to constructed structures in a matter of weeks. Read More….
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Thanks to long-term experience, our clients are provided with the best log house solutions that have proved themselves in practice. It is important for us, to ensure our clients that the partner, whom they can ask for information and advice, will be there for years to come. Professional customer-oriented service is based on advisory consultations and recommendations of practical solutions. Using modern CNC automatic production lines allows us to offer solutions to many complex connections. We always meet agreed deadlines, which is very important for your further planning. We can guarantee punctual delivery thanks to efficient CNC automatic production lines and smooth production management. In cooperation with Tallinn University of Technology we have created a special computer program for calculating the cost of log houses in the early price enquiry stage.
We provide the design, manufacturing, delivery and assembly of prefabricated timber frame houses. Our prefabricated houses are made from high-quality and environmentally friendly materials in controlled conditions in our factory using only recognized and approved materials. A whole production process is resource-wise and thanks to the quality management system we can guarantee that the timber frame houses will be produced according to project documentation. Be inspired and choose high standards of construction, competence and security offered by a stable company with many year of experience.