Space manufacture aggregates, components and parts of automobiles, freight spare parts
There are three primary aspects to the economics of additive manufacturing: measuring the value of goods produced, measuring the costs and benefits of using the technology, and estimating the adoption and diffusion of the technology. This paper provides an updated estimate of the value of goods produced. It then reviews the literature on additive manufacturing costs and identifies those instances in the literature where this technology is cost effective. The paper then goes on to propose an approach for examining and understanding the societal costs and benefits of this technology both from a monetary viewpoint and a resource consumption viewpoint. The final section discusses the trends in the adoption of additive manufacturing.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Dissecting an Engine, The Basic Parts and Their Functions - EricTheCarGuy
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- Costs, Benefits, and Adoption of Additive Manufacturing: A Supply Chain Perspective
- Transportation and the Urban Form
- Electric vehicle
- Automotive Packaging Solutions
- Hp Parts Australia
- Manufacturing Exemptions
- Costs, Benefits, and Adoption of Additive Manufacturing: A Supply Chain Perspective
- The Virtual Supply Chain: Instantaneous, Custom & Local, delivered by UPS
Costs, Benefits, and Adoption of Additive Manufacturing: A Supply Chain Perspective
An electric car is an automobile that is propelled by one or more electric motors , using energy stored in rechargeable batteries. The first practical electric cars were produced in the s. From , a renaissance in electric vehicle manufacturing occurred due to advances in batteries, and the desire to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Charging an electric car can be done at a variety of charging stations , these charging stations can be installed in both houses and public areas. Electric cars are a variety of electric vehicle EV. The term "electric vehicle" refers to any vehicle that uses electric motors for propulsion, while "electric car" generally refers to highway-capable automobiles powered by electricity.
Low-speed electric vehicles, classified as NEVs in the United States,  and as electric motorised quadricycles in Europe,  are plug-in electric-powered microcars or city cars with limitations in terms of weight, power and maximum speed that are allowed to travel on public roads and city streets up to a certain posted speed limit, which varies by country. While an electric car's power source is not explicitly an on-board battery, electric cars with motors powered by other energy sources are typically referred to by a different name.
An electric car carrying solar panels to power it is a solar car , and an electric car powered by a gasoline generator is a form of hybrid car. Thus, an electric car that derives its power from an on-board battery pack is a form of battery electric vehicle BEV. Most often, the term "electric car" is used to refer to battery electric vehicles, but may also refer to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles PHEV.
The invention of the first model electric predecessor vehicle is attributed to various people. Between and , the Scot Robert Anderson built a crude electric-powered carriage, powered by non-rechargeable primary power cells.
In , over 20 years before the Ford Model T , Thomas Parker built a practical production electric car in London using his own specially designed high-capacity rechargeable batteries. In , electric cars found their first commercial use as taxis in Britain and the US. Unlike gasoline-powered vehicles, the electric ones were less noisy, and did not require gear changes.
Advances in internal combustion engines ICE in the first decade of the 20th century lessened the relative advantages of the electric car. Their much quicker refueling times, and cheaper production costs, made them more popular. However, a decisive moment was the introduction in of the electric starter motor that replaced other, often laborious, methods of starting the ICE, such as hand-cranking.
Six electric cars held the land speed record. The emergence of metal-oxide-semiconductor MOS technology led to the development of modern electric road vehicles. MOSFET power converters allowed operation at much higher switching frequencies, made it easier to drive, reduced power losses, and significantly reduced prices, while single-chip microcontrollers could manage all aspects of the drive control and had the capacity for battery management.
In the early s, CARB began a push for more fuel-efficient, lower-emissions vehicles, with the ultimate goal being a move to zero-emissions vehicles such as electric vehicles. These early cars were eventually withdrawn from the U. California electric automaker Tesla Motors began development in on what would become the Tesla Roadster , which was first delivered to customers in Tesla global sales passed , units in September Many countries have set goals to ban the sales of gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles in the future, notably: Norway by , Denmark by , China by , India by , Germany by , France by , and Britain by or As of [update] , electric cars are less expensive to run than comparable internal combustion engine cars due to the lower cost of maintenance and energy,  but cost more to buy new.
However, Matthew Debord states, "the cost-of-ownership analysis has to be seen as somewhat unpredictable today, mainly because The greater the distance driven per year, the more likely the total cost of ownership for an electric car will be less than for an equivalent ICE car.
However, this may only be achievable for EVs with adequate battery temperature regulation, which is critical for battery longevity. Several national and local governments have established incentives to reduce the purchase price of electric cars and other plug-ins. When designing an electric vehicle, manufacturers may find that for low production, converting existing platforms may be cheaper as development cost is lower, however, for higher production, a dedicated platform may be preferred to optimize design, and cost.
As of [update] the electric vehicle battery is a significant part of the total cost of the car. The main cost driver of an electric car is its battery. Electric cars have several benefits over conventional internal combustion engine automobiles, including a significant reduction of local air pollution, as they do not directly emit pollutants such as particulates soot , volatile organic compounds , hydrocarbons , carbon monoxide , ozone , lead , and various oxides of nitrogen.
Depending on the production process and the source of the electricity to charge the vehicle, emissions may be partly shifted from cities to the material transportation, production plants and generation plants. For electricity from the grid, the emissions vary significantly depending on your region, the availability of renewable sources and the efficiency of the fossil fuel-based generation used.
The same is true of ICE vehicles. The sourcing of fossil fuels oil well to tank causes further damage and use of resources during the extraction and refinement processes, including high amounts of electricity. The cost of installing charging infrastructure has been estimated to be repaid by health cost savings in less than 3 years. It is estimated that there are sufficient lithium reserves to power 4 billion electric cars.
The demand for lithium , heavy metals , and other elements such as neodymium , boron and cobalt required for the batteries and powertrain is expected to grow significantly due to the future sales increase of plug-in electric vehicles in the mid and long term. Electric motors can provide high power-to-weight ratios , batteries can be designed to supply the currents needed to support these motors.
Electric motors have flat torque curve down to zero speed. For simplicity and reliability, many electric cars use fixed-ratio gearboxes and have no clutch. Many electric cars have higher acceleration than average internal combustion cars, largely due to reduced drivetrain frictional losses, and the more quickly available torque of an electric motor.
Electric vehicles can also use a direct motor-to-wheel configuration that increases the available power. Having motors connected directly to each wheel simplifies using the motor for both propulsion and braking, increasing traction. Some DC-motor -equipped drag racer EVs have simple two-speed manual transmissions to improve top speed. Internal combustion engines have thermodynamic limits on efficiency, expressed as fraction of energy used to propel the vehicle compared to energy produced by burning fuel.
Electric motors are more efficient than internal combustion engines in converting stored energy into driving a vehicle. However, they are not equally efficient at all speeds. To allow for this, some cars with dual electric motors have one electric motor with a gear optimised for city speeds and the second electric motor with a gear optimised for highway speeds.
The electronics select the motor that has the best efficiency for the current speed and acceleration. While heating can be provided with an electric resistance heater, higher efficiency and integral cooling can be obtained with a reversible heat pump. To avoid using part of the battery's energy for heating and thus reducing the range, some models allow the cabin to be heated while the car is plugged in.
Cabin cooling can be augmented with solar power external batteries and USB fans or coolers, or by automatically allowing outside air to flow through the car when parked. Two models of the Toyota Prius include this feature as an option.
This document is divided in three parts dealing with specific issues:. Like their internal combustion engine ICE counterparts, electric vehicle batteries can catch fire after a crash or mechanical failure. In this case the vehicle was being driven at high speed through a roundabout and crashed through a wall and into a tree.
The fire broke out several minutes after the driver exited the vehicle. In the United States, General Motors ran in several cities a training program for firefighters and first responders to demonstrate how to safely disable the Chevrolet Volt 's powertrain and its 12 volt electrical system. The Volt's high-voltage system is designed to shut down automatically in the event of an airbag deployment, and to detect a loss of communication from an airbag control module.
The guide also describes methods of disabling the high voltage system and identifies cut zone information. The weight of the batteries themselves usually makes an EV heavier than a comparable gasoline vehicle, in a collision, the occupants of a heavy vehicle will on average, suffer fewer and less serious injuries than the occupants of a lighter vehicle; therefore, the additional weight brings safety benefits to the occupant  despite having a negative effect on the car's performance.
Some electric cars use low rolling resistance tires , which typically offer less grip than normal tires. As of [update] , most electric cars have similar driving controls to that of a car with a conventional automatic transmission. Even though the motor may be permanently connected to the wheels through a fixed-ratio gear and no parking pawl may be present, the modes "P" and "N" are often still provided on the selector. In this case the motor is disabled in "N" and an electrically actuated hand brake provides the "P" mode.
In some cars the motor will spin slowly to provide a small amount of creep in "D", similar to a traditional automatic. When an internal combustion vehicle's accelerator is released, it may slow by engine braking depending on the type of transmission, and mode.
An EV would coast when the accelerator is similarly released, but it may be equipped with regenerative braking that mimics a familiar response of slowing the vehicle and also recharging the battery to an extent.
Lithium-based batteries are often used for their high power and energy density, although they eventually wear out. Batteries with different chemical compositions are in development such as zinc-air battery that could be much lighter. The range of an electric car depends on the number and type of batteries used, and as with all vehicles, the weight and type of vehicle, performance requirements, and the weather. The majority of electric cars are fitted with a display of expected range.
This may take into account many factors of how the vehicle is being used, and what the battery is powering. However, since factors can vary over the route, the estimate can vary from the actual achieved range. The display allows the driver to make informed choices about driving speed and whether to stop at a charging point en route. Some roadside assistance organizations offer charge trucks to recharge electric cars in case of emergency.
Electric cars are typically charged overnight from a charging station installed in the owner's house, or from faster charging stations found in businesses and public areas. Compared to fossil fuel vehicles, the need for charging using public infrastructure is diminished because of the opportunities for home charging; vehicles can be plugged in and begin each day with a full charge, assuming the home charging station can charge quickly enough.
Charging an electric vehicle using public charging stations takes longer than refueling a fossil fuel vehicle. The speed at which a vehicle can recharge depends on the charging station's charging speed and the vehicle's own capacity to receive a charge. Some companies have been experimenting with battery swapping to substantially reduce the effective time to recharge. Electric vehicle charging plugs are not yet universal throughout the world. However vehicles using one type of plug are generally able to charge at other types of charging stations with the use of plug adapters.
Some electric vehicles include small gasoline engines to extend their range in an emergency. These are considered a type of hybrid vehicle. As with all lithium-ion batteries, electric vehicle batteries may degrade over long periods of time, especially if they are frequently overcharged, however, this may take at least several years before being noticeable. However, Nissan stated in that thus far only 0. Volkswagen, in collaboration with six partners, is developing an EU research project that is focused on automating the parking and charging of electric vehicles.
The objective of this project is to develop a smart car system that allows for autonomous driving in designated areas e. Experimental supercapacitors and flywheel energy storage devices offer comparable storage capacity, faster charging, and lower volatility.
They have the potential to overtake batteries as the preferred rechargeable storage for EVs. Solar cars are electric vehicles powered completely or significantly by direct solar energy , usually, through photovoltaic PV cells contained in solar panels that convert the sun's energy directly into electric energy, usually used to charge a battery. Qualcomm, Hyundai, Ford, and Mitsubishi are the top patent holders of the close to electric vehicle charging patents filed between and
Transportation and the Urban Form
Hand tools, power tools, workshop equipment, complete van racking system, special military tools for aircrafts, light systems. Electronic, measuring and testing equipment, electronic components. Application: aviation, defense and electronic industries. Business development consulting services to aerospace companies.
An engine is the heart of a vehicle's operating system and ultimately what makes the vehicle a successful form of transportation. Without the engine, a vehicle is just another big piece of stamped out metal appearing in various shapes and sizes. In addition to being manufactured for vehicles, engines are also built for aircraft and large machinery equipment, such as Caterpillar excavators and dozers. They are also used in trailer manufacturing for the hydraulic systems.
An electric vehicle , also called an EV , uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. An electric vehicle may be powered through a collector system by electricity from off-vehicle sources, or may be self-contained with a battery , solar panels or an electric generator to convert fuel to electricity. EVs first came into existence in the midth century, when electricity was among the preferred methods for motor vehicle propulsion, providing a level of comfort and ease of operation that could not be achieved by the gasoline cars of the time. Modern internal combustion engines have been the dominant propulsion method for motor vehicles for almost years, but electric power has remained commonplace in other vehicle types, such as trains and smaller vehicles of all types. Commonly, the term EV is used to refer to an electric car. In the 21st century, EVs saw a resurgence due to technological developments, and an increased focus on renewable energy. A great deal of demand for electric vehicles developed and a small core of do-it-yourself DIY engineers began sharing technical details for doing electric vehicle conversions. Government incentives to increase adoptions were introduced, including in the United States and the European Union. American blacksmith and inventor Thomas Davenport built a toy electric locomotive, powered by a primitive electric motor, in
Automotive Packaging Solutions
By Christine Larson. The supply chain of the future delivers hyper-customized products on-demand, locally sourced, and taking advantage of economies of scale. How so? Through the immense power of 3D-printing.
The transition from a rural to an urban society. Statistically, urbanization reflects an increasing proportion of the population living in settlements defined as urban, primarily through net rural to urban migration. The level of urbanization is the percentage of the total population living in towns and cities while the rate of urbanization is the rate at which it grows.
Hp Parts Australia
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An electric car is an automobile that is propelled by one or more electric motors , using energy stored in rechargeable batteries. The first practical electric cars were produced in the s. From , a renaissance in electric vehicle manufacturing occurred due to advances in batteries, and the desire to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Charging an electric car can be done at a variety of charging stations , these charging stations can be installed in both houses and public areas.
Costs, Benefits, and Adoption of Additive Manufacturing: A Supply Chain Perspective
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The Virtual Supply Chain: Instantaneous, Custom & Local, delivered by UPS
State sales and use tax exemptions are available to taxpayers who manufacture, fabricate or process tangible personal property for sale. Texas sales and use tax exempts tangible personal property that becomes an ingredient or component of an item manufactured for sale, as well as taxable services performed on a manufactured product to make it more marketable. The exemption also applies to tangible personal property that makes a chemical or physical change in the product being manufactured and is necessary and essential in the manufacturing process.
Грубость Джаббы была недопустима, но директор понимал, что сейчас не время и не место углубляться в вопросы служебной этики.
Нам необходимо число, - напомнил Джабба. - Шифр-убийца имеет цифровую структуру. - Тихо, - потребовал Фонтейн и повернулся к Сьюзан. - Мисс Флетчер, вы проделали уже немалую часть пути.
Код страны - 1. Действительно хорошая новость. ГЛАВА 54 - Пусти. А потом раздался нечеловеческий крик. Это был протяжный вопль ужаса, издаваемый умирающим зверем. Сьюзан замерла возле вентиляционного люка. Крик оборвался столь же внезапно, как и раздался.
999 999 999. Он ахнул. Миллиард долларов. Соблазнительный образ Кармен тут же улетучился.