Space product constant resistors
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- Military / Space Approved
- Resistor Equipped Transistors (RETs)
- SMD assembly
- Integral Planar Resistors Save Circuit Board Space
- Military and Space
- About Us & News
- Power Resistors Sorted By Part Series
- What is the Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits?
- 42. Fundamentals of Transistor With Built-In Resistors
- Dynamic Braking Resistors
Military / Space Approved
This chapter starts off by explaining the meaning of resistance in an electric circuit. Learners will then look at the use of resistors. This is a revision of some of the concepts covered in Gr 8 Energy and Change when looking at the Energy transfers within an electrical system Chapter 2. For an easy reference to what learners covered in the previous grade, you can visit the website www.
This year, the concept of resistance will be extended by looking at the factors that affect resistance in a resistor, namely:.
These will be investigated experimentally. Learners must be able to explain the relationships between these factors and the resistance offered by the resistor. It is not necessary to show experimentally how temperature affects resistance, but the concept must still be covered. CAPS suggests investigating at least one of the other factors. All three investigations have been included in this workbook so that you have the choice as to which one you would like to conduct with your class, or, if time permits, you can conduct all three investigations.
Three hours have been allocated to this section in CAPS, so you should have time to perform more than one of the investigations. In the workbook, they have been presented as three separate investigations, but you can also perform them concurrently, or allocate a different investigation to different groups.
The groups can then report back to the class on their findings and you can subsequently summarise the effects on the board. If you only teach Natural Sciences, it is a good idea to check with the Technology teachers to see how these two curriculums complement each other, especially with regard to electricity. Some of the concepts which might be introduced for the first time in Natural Sciences, have already been covered in the Technology curriculum.
Knowing what learners have already covered and been introduced to will help make your classes more efficient and more stimulating for learners. Hypothesising, identifying variables, following instructions, drawing, observing, describing, analysing, concluding.
A good way to introduce this topic is to act out the following situation with your learners which is explained in the learner's book. You can even just create an imaginary field by drawing a square with chalk on the ground and then a narrow corridor coming off of it.
Tell learners to first walk around randomly in the field and then when you signal indicating that a potential difference has been applied across the wire , they all need to move towards the corridor and get through it. You can make the corridor start off wide and become narrower to further illustrate how the resistance to their movement increases as the corridor becomes narrower. This only demonstrates one of the factors influencing resistance namely the width of the conductor , but can be used to introduce the idea of resistance.
We have revised the concept of electric current and how electrons move within a conducting wire before introducing the idea of resistance in an electric circuit. Think about your school break time. All of the learners are outside on the field, sitting in groups and relaxing. Some of you will be moving around the field from group to group as you greet your friends. The school bell rings, signaling the end of break. You all get up and start moving toward the school building. You are all able to move easily because there is a great deal of space but what happens as you enter the corridor of the school building?
Everyone now has to fit through a narrow corridor. Everyone is trying to get to class and so some learners will bump into other learners. As you try to enter your classroom it becomes even more difficult because the doorway is even narrower than the corridor and so only one or two learners can pass through at a time. The movement of the learners is very similar to the movement of electrons in an electrical conductor.
The field offers a very low resistance to the movement of the learners and so the learners are able to move freely. The corridor has a higher resistance to the movement of the learners because less learners can now pass through the corridor than through the field.
The classroom doorway offers the highest resistance as it only allows a few learners through at a time. How can we use this to illustrate electrical resistance? Let's first revise some concepts about electric current. Electric charge , or charge, is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when close to other electrically charged matter. There are two types of electric charges - positive and negative.
Electrons have a negative charge and protons have a positive charge. An electric current is the rate of charge flow in a closed, electric circuit. The electrons in an atom are arranged in the outer space around the central nucleus. In metals, the electrons are able to move freely within the metal. The electrons are not associated with a particular atom in the metal.
We say electrons in a metal are delocalised. Have a look at the following diagram which shows this. We can think of the model of a metal as the positive metal ions in fixed positions surrounded by a 'sea' of electrons. Conducting wire in an electric circuit is made of metal. If we supply it with a source of energy and a complete circuit, then the electrons will all move in the same general direction through the wire to the positive terminal of the battery. This movement of electrons per time through a conductor is the electric current.
Resistance in an electrical circuit opposes the passage of electrons. The ohm gets its name from the German physicist Georg Simon Ohm, who noticed that the potential difference across a conductor and the electric current are directly proportional Ohm's Law.
An electrical conductor is a type of material or object which allows electric charge to pass through it. You can also remind learners at this point that electrical insulators are non-conductors as they do not allow electric charge through them. All electrical conductors have some resistance. Some conducting materials have a particular resistance and are used to add electrical resistance to a circuit.
An electrical component which adds resistance to a circuit is called a resistor. Can you see that there are different coloured bands on the resistors? This isn't just to make them look pleasing to the eye. The coloured bands are actually a code that tells us the strength of the resistance of the resistor. Resistors are electrical components and have a symbol to represent them in an electric circuit diagram. Do you remember the symbol from Gr 8? Draw it in the space below.
There are two symbols used to represent resistors, but the one most commonly used is the the one using a block. On a microscopic level, electrons moving through the conductor collide or interact with the particles of which the conductor metal is made. When they collide, they transfer kinetic energy. This leads to resistance. The transferred energy causes the resistor to heat up.
You can feel this directly if you touch a cellphone charger when you are charging a cell phone - the charger gets warm because its circuits have some resistors in them. Resistors can be used to control the current in a circuit. Think back to some of the work that you did in Gr 8.
If you increase the resistance in a circuit, what happens to the current? Explain your answer. Discuss this with your class as they might not have conducted these investigations in the previous grade. When the resistance in a circuit increases, the current decreases.
Adding more resistance increases the opposition to the flow of charge so it is more difficult for charge to move through the circuit. Therefore there is less current as current is the rate of flow of charge. We say that the current is inversely proportional to the resistance, meaning as the resistance increases, the current decreases. Another way in which we can use resistors is to provide useful energy transfers. Do you remember looking at energy transfers in a system in Gr 8?
The input energy enters the system and then provides an output energy. Some of the output energy is useful to us, and some is wasted energy. For example, a resistor can be used to transfer electrical energy into light light bulb or into heat kettle element.
Energy is wasted as it is lost to the surroundings. Resistors are used to provide useful energy transfers. This activity links back to the work done in Grade 8 Energy and Change. The difference between "useful" and "wasted" energy is highlighted again. The learners should see that resistors can be used to provide useful energy transfers. Why do we want to resist the movement of electrons?
Resistors can be extremely useful. Think about a kettle. If you look inside you will see a large metal coil. This metal coil is the heating element.
If you plug in and switch on the kettle, the element heats up and heats the water. The element is a large resistor. When the electrons move through the resistor, they release a lot of energy in overcoming the resistance. This energy is transferred to the water in the form of heat. This transfer of energy is useful to us as the thermal energy is used to boil water in the kettle.
Resistor Equipped Transistors (RETs)
Handbook of Geophysics and Space Environments. This handbook is a comprehensive collection of data, formulas, definitions, and theories concerning the natural environment. It was designed to serve a broad spectrum of users: the planner, designer, developer, and operator of aerospace systems; the scientist who will find the tables and figures a convenient reference in his own field; the specialist who needs environmental data in another discipline; and science minded people who seek a summary of space-age environmental research. Revisions of individual chapters and sections of this handbook will be published as additional environmental research efforts pay off in new knowledge. This number of electrons can be obtained in terms of the number N per cubic centimeter inside the surface by combining the relation 5 with equation 2.
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This chapter starts off by explaining the meaning of resistance in an electric circuit. Learners will then look at the use of resistors. This is a revision of some of the concepts covered in Gr 8 Energy and Change when looking at the Energy transfers within an electrical system Chapter 2. For an easy reference to what learners covered in the previous grade, you can visit the website www. This year, the concept of resistance will be extended by looking at the factors that affect resistance in a resistor, namely:. These will be investigated experimentally. Learners must be able to explain the relationships between these factors and the resistance offered by the resistor. It is not necessary to show experimentally how temperature affects resistance, but the concept must still be covered.
Integral Planar Resistors Save Circuit Board Space
Planar resistors fabricated as part of a printed-circuit-board PCB laminate material provide circuit designers the means of saving board space and assembly costs at the same time. The resistors are formed on special resistive layers that are bound to a PCB dielectric material, such as polytetrafluoroethylene PTFE. The PCB dielectric is also laminated with electro-deposited copper for forming transmission lines and other circuit features in stripline and microstrip technologies, in addition to the embedded resistors. Rogers Corp. Designing a circuit using integral planar resistors can save the cost of assembling chip or surface-mount resistors to a PCB as well as the cost of the resistors themselves.
Oh no! Oh, you thought it would be funny to pull one of the bulbs out, and now the whole thing has gone belly up! Every year, millions of lights go dark around the world for one critical lesson — to teach you the difference between series and parallel circuits!
Military and Space
Accessibe Poetry by Amit Moreno. The Model produces a highly precise voltage that is directly proportional to measured current levels, with significantly reduced component sensitivity to applied power changes, including PCR and thermal resistance values. To ensure total resistor reliability and conformance to published specifications, each unit undergoes stringent testing across its full batch lot.
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About Us & News
Ohmite has a part series suited for many applications. Due to multiple mounting options and constructions, Ohmite is confident customers will find the proper resistor required to fit their needs. Download PDF. High Current Round Edgewound These high current round edgewound resistors handle a variety of applications including dynamic braking, load banks, motor starting, and plugging. They are available… Read More. Alumina Body Current Sense 14AFR Current Sense resistors feature a high-temperature ceramic body which affords the user higher power densities than similar products which utilize silicone based… Read More. The 20 Series axial terminal resistors are both durable and economical. They have all the electrical attributes of more expensive wire wound axial resistors, including all-welded construction.
By combining transistors with their attendant resistors, RETs make excellent space- and cost-saving solutions. We offer some products, so you can find the best fit for your application. Within our portfolio you will find single and dual RETs with a great variety of resistor combinations. Furthermore you can also choose from ranges with SMD and leaded packages. If you have a support question, let us know.
Power Resistors Sorted By Part Series
Access Online via Elsevier Bolero Ozon. Electrical Engineer's Reference Book. A long established reference book: radical revision for the fifteenth edition includes complete rearrangement to take in chapters on new topics and regroup the subjects covered for easy access to information. The Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, first published in , maintains its original aims: to reflect the state of the art in electrical science and technology and cater for the needs of practising engineers.
What is the Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits?
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Due to kinetic energy, an electric motor continues to rotate for a short time even after it has been switched off. As the rotor keeps rotating, the motor starts acting as a generator and feeding the drive. Resistance value of the braking resistor changes based on the drive. This can be detected by the driver's manufacturer. This value is specified in the drive's user guide.
42. Fundamentals of Transistor With Built-In Resistors
Ultra precision 0. Rectangular type wirewound resistors with glass core rectangular type wirewound resistors with ceramic core rectangular typemetal oxide film resistors. Rectangular type wirewound resistors with glass core for automotive rectangular type wirewound resistors with ceramic core for automotive rectangular typemetal oxide filmresistors for automotive. Home Select Your Region. Check Inventory:.
Dynamic Braking Resistors
На брусчатке под ногами мелькали смутные тени, водка еще не выветрилась из головы. Все происходящее напомнило ему нечеткую фотографию. Мысли его то и дело возвращались к Сьюзан: он надеялся, что она уже прослушала его голос на автоответчике.