Units fabrication cereals and legumes
The present invention relates to food products and to their methods of preparation. More particularly, the present invention relates to ready-to-eat cereals and to their methods of preparation. Ready-to-eat "R-T-E" cereals are popular food items. Over the years, R-T-E cereals have been prepared in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, compositions, textures, flavors and the like. Especially popular are those R-T-E cereals comprising a blend of several cooked cereal grains. Such multi-grain R-T-E cereals are well known.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: What are Legumes?
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Design, fabrication and testing of batched grain beverages processing machine
The present invention relates to food products and to their methods of preparation. More particularly, the present invention relates to ready-to-eat cereals and to their methods of preparation.
Ready-to-eat "R-T-E" cereals are popular food items. Over the years, R-T-E cereals have been prepared in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, compositions, textures, flavors and the like. Especially popular are those R-T-E cereals comprising a blend of several cooked cereal grains. Such multi-grain R-T-E cereals are well known. Generally, the individual R-T-E pieces are uniform in composition throughout the cereal piece. The homogeneous composition can include a plurality of cereal grains, e.
Alternatively, it is also conventionally known to employ blends of R-T-E cereal pieces comprising more than one cereal, e. Typically, the individual cereal pieces are cooked and prepared, including puffing, in separate batches of one cereal composition. Thereafter, the individual batches of puffed products are blended together prior to packaging. Attempts at incorporating more than one cereal composition into an individual cereal piece having distinct portions of a single composition, however, have met great difficulty.
More recently, however, composite cereal pieces comprising an upper layer of one composition and a second layer of a second composition have been introduced into the market. Such cereals have been sold under the trademark Crispix. Such cereals comprise an upper discontinuous layer e. Multicolored two-ply R-T-E cereals are also known see, for example, U. Duffy entitled "Multicolored R-T-E Cereal and Method of Preparation which rely upon using a highly puffabale cereal dough such as rice flour.
In view of the increasing popularity of multi-grain cereals and especially whole grain cereals, it would be desirable to provide a single R-T-E cereal piece having distinct portions as opposed to a uniform blend of different R-T-E cereal compositions. Even more desirable would be puffed R-T-E cereal pieces with distinct portions of different R-T-E cereal compositions.
Provision of such heterogeneous cereals, however, requires several problems to be overcome. One problem is to provide for adherence between two cooked cereal doughs of different composition while preventing substantial co-mingling thereof. Another problem is to provide a finished product that is puffed. Provision of two layers of puffed products while difficult can be accomplished using at least two techniques.
However, providing a product with three puffed layers is much more difficult. In the provision of a puffed two-layered or two-ply R-T-E cereal, the first technique involves puffing each cereal portion separately such as by direct expansion upon exiting of a cooker extruder.
However, the provision of a puffed third phase intermediate is extremely difficult to handle without collapsing the third phase. As a consequence of these difficulties in providing multiple plies of previously puffed cereal dough prior to individual piece formation, it becomes desirable to employ a second technique, namely to prepare the puffed pieces from unpuffed two-ply R-T-E puffable pellets.
While unpuffed multilayered R-T-E cereal pellets can be prepared, it is extremely difficult to puff such laminated pellets. As the pellet thickness increases, its puffability decreases. In a three-ply laminated pellet, conventional puffing techniques, while perhaps successfully puffing the upper and lower layers tend to fail to expand any intermediate layer s. Moreover, as the exterior layers begin to expand, the expanded material increasingly acts as an insulator against the heat transfer from the pellet exterior to the pellet interior that is needed to accomplish puffing of the interior layer.
Finally, the boundary between the layers can restrict heat transfer thereby impeding the puffing of the interior layer.
The resultant product instead of having a desirably uniform, crisp and light texture has a hard and unappealing unpuffed center layer s.
While such problems of unpuffed intermediate regions for multi-ply laminated pellets are severe even with easily puffed or high puffable cereal doughs fabricated from refined cereal dough compositions, such problems are aggravated when less easily puffed whole grain cereal compositions are employed.
The problems are also made worse when the products further comprise an intermediate non-cereal layer such as a fruit puree. Notwithstanding the provision of an R-T-E cereal piece having upper and lower layers which differ in composition, there is a continuing need for novel and visually appealing R-T-E cereal pieces characterized by a plurality of discrete cereal compositions in one cereal piece. Surprisingly, a convenient process has now been discovered by which such novel R-T-E cereal pieces can be realized.
The present methods involve the steps of fabricating multilayered cooked cereal dough pellets and then puffing the pellets employing high intensity microwave energy. Disclosed are multilayered, puffed R-T-E cereal pieces. The R-T-E cereals comprise at least three discrete layers of cooked cereal dough. The bulk density of the finished R-T-E cereals range from about 0. The cereals are essentially characterized by an intermediate cereal dough layer having an expanded volume relative to its initial volume.
In additional embodiments, the present invention resides in laminated R-T-E cereal pieces wherein one or more of the layers have one major surface having corrugations. The present invention relates to puffed, multilayered R-T-E cereal pieces and to their methods of preparation. In preferred embodiments, the cereal pieces can have a plurality of puffed layers including an upper layer and a bottom layer and at least one intermediate layer, each of which is characterized as being visually distinct.
Each of the product preparation steps are described below in detail. Throughout the specification and claims, percentages are by weight and temperatures in degrees Fahrenheit, unless otherwise indicated. Reference is now made to the drawing which illustrates the preferred method for practicing the present invention.
In FIG. Any technique for providing such a laminated sheet, or in continuous operations, continuous laminated ribbon can be used to provide the laminated piece. In another embodiment, the steps can be practiced by co-extruding at least three layers of unexpanded cooked cereal dough. The art is replete with teachings and methods for preparing cooked cereal dough compositions and forming such compositions into sheets.
The skilled artisan will have no difficulty in providing such cooked dough sheets as a starting material. Generally, however, in the conventional preparation of cooked R-T-E cereal doughs the essential cereal ingredients and other ingredients are combined with water and heat and mild pressure to cook or gelatinize the starchy component of the cereal ingredients. Thereafter, the cooked cereal is combined with the other ingredients and mixed with low or high shearing to form a cooked farinaceous dough.
A variety of well known cooking methods and equipment can be used to prepare a cooked cereal dough. For example, the cereal blend can be processed in a cooker extruder or in a pressurized and agitated steam cooker each of which form a cooked cereal dough. In another embodiment, the cooking and dough forming steps are performed simultaneously in a conventional high pressure, high shear cooker extruder e.
The present invention is particularly suitable for use in connection with the preparation of whole grain R-T-E cereal products from whole grain based cooked cereal doughs. Even more particularly, the present invention is suitable for use in connection with wheat based, especially whole wheat, flaked R-T-E cereals having the following essential ingredients:. In the preparation of whole grain based cooked cereal doughs, the whole grains typically require or benefit from extended cooking times.
Traditional, low pressure, low shear, extended cook time batch or semi-continuous cookers can be used. In another embodiment, the whole grain, water and minor ingredients can be formed quickly into a cooked cereal dough using a cooker extruder. Since cook times in a cooker extruder are so short, in one minor variation, the grains are partially cooked in a conditioner with steam atmospheric or slightly pressurized prior to being fed to the extruder.
Such a preconditioning or partial cooking allows the grain to develop a better cooked flavor. Of course, the present cooked cereal doughs can additionally comprise other whole grain cereals including those of corn, oats, rice, barley and mixtures thereof. While these major grains are most popular, minor useful grains include amaranth, millet, sorghum, triticale, flax and mixtures thereof.
The term "refined cereal doughs" is used in contrast to whole grain cereal doughs. Both the fiber and the oil generally adversely affects the ability of the dough composition to expand. Additionally, refined cereal doughs can comprise "highly refined" cereal doughs. Adding pure cereal starches and sucrose each have a beneficial effect on the dough compositions ability to expand. Of course, within this general outline of cereal processing for the provision of cooked cereal doughs, a wide variety of particular methods and variations can be used.
The cooked cereal dough is then formed while still warm into a sheet s or continuous ribbon in conventional manner. Useful herein are conventional roller sheeters. Preferably the sheets are continuous and imperforate. The thickness of the sheets desirably ranges from about 0. Preferred thicknesses range from about 0. Separately, second and third quantities of warm, low moisture, cooked cereal dough of a second composition, etc.
In continuous production, separate processing streams are each dedicated to providing cooked dough ribbons of a single composition. Depending on the end product desired, the quantities of first, second or additional cooked cereal doughs can either be the same or different.
The composition of the doughs may either be the same or different as well. Moreover, the sheet thickness may vary within the above described ranges if desired. Conveniently, the cooked dough sheets can be of approximately equal size. In highly preferred embodiments, one or more of the cooked cereal dough sheets are fabricated with at least one major surface having corrugations. The corrugated sheets can be prepared by having one sheeting roll fabricated with corrugations.
In another variation, the sheet is run through a second set of rollers having a corrugated roll to impart the corrugations to the sheet s. Preferably, the layers are arranged so that the corrugated layers are in confronting relationship with the smooth major surface of the adjacent layer. Surprisingly, this corrugated-to-smooth confronting relationship minimizes subsequent undesirable delamination. In less preferred embodiments, one or more layers lack the surface corrugations or do not have the corrugated surfaces in confronting relationship.
The particular shape of the corrugations are not critical. Conveniently, the corrugations can range from 3 to 15 per inch and from about 0. The corrugations of any one layer can be parallel to those of the other layers or at any angle thereto, e.
It is important that at least a portion of the layers be bound together to prevent total delamination upon puffing and complete separation of the layers from each other. In certain embodiments, only end regions or middle regions of the layers are bound together. Such partial bonding can result in a pleasing variety of end shapes to the present finished products.
In the next essential step, the individual ribbons or layers are combined to form a single laminated sheet or multilayered ribbon characterized by at least three plys or layers of cereal dough.
The sheeting step is practiced using conventional sheeting apparatus, generally a pair of counter-rotating compression rollers. The lamination operation preferably involves compressive roll sufficient to prevent delamination during puffing. Good results are obtained using pressures ranging from about to 5, psi to 30, kPa , preferably about to 3, psi to 9, kPa.
Dietary fibre in foods: a review
Dietary fibre is that part of plant material in the diet which is resistant to enzymatic digestion which includes cellulose, noncellulosic polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, pectic substances, gums, mucilages and a non-carbohydrate component lignin. The diets rich in fibre such as cereals, nuts, fruits and vegetables have a positive effect on health since their consumption has been related to decreased incidence of several diseases. Dietary fibre can be used in various functional foods like bakery, drinks, beverages and meat products. Influence of different processing treatments like extrusion-cooking, canning, grinding, boiling, frying alters the physico- chemical properties of dietary fibre and improves their functionality. Dietary fibre can be determined by different methods, mainly by: enzymic gravimetric and enzymic—chemical methods.
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Account Options Anmelden. Meine Mediathek Hilfe Erweiterte Buchsuche. E-Book anzeigen. CRC Press Amazon. Extruders in Food Applications. The result of years of experience by experts in extrusion technology, Extruders in Food Applications brings together practical experience and in-depth knowledge of extrusion cooking technology. This concise reference summarizes basic considerations for the application of extrusion technology to food industry processes and focuses on the various types of extruders available for a growing number of food applications. Chapters compare and describe the different types of extruders and their functions, including characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, and applications, providing a wealth of information about dry extruders, interrupted flight extruder-expanders, and single screw and twin screw extruders.
My Master's thesis title was "Genetic modification and the facts: an ethical analysis of the GM debate". Library details here and was undertaken with supervision by Dr. Neil Pickering at the University of Otago. In , I began studies in Pharmacy at the University of Otago from Second year, then transferred to the University of Auckland in Third year and in , received my BPharm Hons and undertook my internship at Middlemore Hospital , and was then employed as a clinical pharmacist in general surgery during The PhD research was supervised by Dr.
Anthropogenic warming is caused mainly by emissions of greenhouse gases GHGs , such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, with agriculture as a main contributor for the latter 2 gases. Other parts of the food system contribute carbon dioxide emissions that emanate from the use of fossil fuels in transportation, processing, retailing, storage, and preparation. Food items differ substantially when GHG emissions are calculated from farm to table.
EP2157871A2 - Nutritious fabricated snack products - Google Patents
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To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Mulgund1 U. Ramaiah Institute of Technology.
Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia. Hagos Hailu Kassegn has published peer-reviewed articles in the areas of food safety, thyme herbal tea development, cereal chemistry, weaning food preparation and preparation of training manual and consulting to technical and vocational college instructors in the area of Honey Beverage Processing. He has conducted assessments of food safety issues in the cow milk supply chain in urban and per-urban areas of Tigray, Ethiopia. The information in the current perspective article is important for safe food preparation and enhancing nutrient contents of weaning food. Malnutrition affects children and women of low income society in developing countries.
Food is any substance  consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients , such as carbohydrates , fats , proteins , vitamins , or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism's cells to provide energy , maintain life, or stimulate growth. Historically, humans secured food through two methods: hunting and gathering and agriculture , which gave modern humans a mainly omnivorous diet. Worldwide, humanity has created numerous cuisines and culinary arts , including a wide array of ingredients , herbs , spices , techniques , and dishes.
Crotalaria juncea L. Crotalaria benghalensis Lam. The crop is grown for green manure, as a soil improver and as a disease break in cereal or other crop rotations Tripathi et al. Sunn hemp is locally used as fodder Sarkar et al.
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A fresh view of the state-of-the-art, Advances in Food Extrusion Technology focuses on extruder selection, extrudate development, quality parameters, and troubleshooting in the 21st century extrusion process. In particular, the book:. Introduces the history, nomenclature, and working principles of extrusion technology Presents an overview of various types of extruders as well as parts and components of an extruder for design considerations Discusses extruder selection and design, fluid flow problem with different types of raw materials, and heat transfer and viscous energy dissipation, with advantages and limitations for particular cases Emphasizes recent research while providing an overview of trends previously reported in the literature Covers the coinjection of food substances into an extruder die with the objective of creating defined colored patterns, adding internal flavors, and achieving other food injection applications into cereal-based extruded products Describes thermal and nonthermal extrusion of protein products. Discussing the influence of design and raw materials on extruder performance and nutritional value, this book covers current and developing products from cereal-based snacks to pet food. In addition to the usual benefits of heat processing, extrusion offers the possibility of modifying and expanding the functional properties of food ingredients.
The present invention relates to nutritious fabricated snack products that have authentic flavor. Fabricated snack products prepared from dough comprising starch-based materials are well-known in the art. Potato based dough, and the snacks made there from are especially well known. These doughs are typically fried in oil or baked to form the snack chip. Consumers are, however, looking for snack products that contain healthful ingredients other than starch materials.
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