Produce ware cereals and legumes
History of Agriculture in India, Up to C. Vinod Chandra Srivastava. History of Agriculture in India up to c. It is a synthesis and summation of existing knowledge on the history of agriculture in ancient India on the combined bases of archaeological and literary sources against the backdrop of Asian history in general. Besides summing up the existing knowledge, it opens new vistas for further research on many debated issues in the history of agriculture in ancient India. The volume addresses the vexed and controversial questions on the origin, antiquity and sources of Indian agricultural history.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Technology of cereals, pulses & oilseeds
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Fitasa de Cereals
Descubra todo lo que Scribd tiene para ofrecer, incluyendo libros y audiolibros de importantes editoriales. EGLI, L. The possibility to degrade phytic acid during the production of complementary foods by using whole grain cereals as the phytase source was investigated.
The potential usefulness of the method for industrial production was demonstrated with a complementary food based on wheat and soybean. Keywords: phytic acid, phytase, complementary foods, cereals, food processing. Introduction combined with milk, or with legumes in countries where milk is not readily available, to improve the protein quantity and nutritional quality.
Cereal grains and legume seeds generally contain high amounts of phytic acid myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6 hexakis [dihydrogen phosphate] , which binds strongly to minerals and trace elements. Mineral and trace element requirements are high during early life due to rapid growth and development. To ensure adequate bioavailability of these nutrients from complementary foods should therefore be a priority. The inhibitory effect of phytic acid, resulting in reduced iron and zinc bioavailability in humans, was shown to be mainly caused by IP6 and IP5 Sandstrm and Sandberg ; Sandberg and others Lower inositol phosphates bind less strongly to minerals and trace elements.
The positive effect of phytic acid degradation or removal on iron absorption and zinc absorption from meals based on cereals or legumes has been shown in several studies in adults and infants Kivist and others ; Davidsson and others ; Larsson and others ; Cook and others ; Hurrell and others Phytase occurs naturally in cereal grains and legume seeds as well as in microorganisms.
The phytase activities of grains and seeds vary widely; rye and wheat show rather high activities, whereas legumes and the cereals maize, millet, oat, and sorghum were found to have rather low phytase activities Bartnik and Szafranska ; Scott ; Egli and others The highest phytase activities have been reported in microorganisms of the Aspergillus species Shieh and Ware ; Howson and Davies Microbial phytases, extracted or genetically engineered, are available but have not, to our knowledge, been used to degrade phytic acid in commercial products for human consumption.
A more ac Institute of Food Technologists Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Phytase in grains and seeds can be activated by traditional food processing methods such as soaking, germination, and fermentation to decrease the phytic acid content in complementary and other foods Gupta and Sehgal ; Marero and others ; Svanberg and others ; Sanni and others ; Porres and others However, these processing methods change the composition, viscosity, and taste of the complementary foods considerably and might result in products with low consumer acceptability.
In addition, the complete phytic acid degradation, necessary to improve iron absorption meaningfully Hurrell and others generally requires prolonged fermentation and therefore might introduce problems of microbiological safety. In this study, the feasibility of complete phytic acid degradation, using phytase from whole grain cereals, was investigated by the inclusion of an incubation step in the production of complementary foods.
Conditions were optimized during laboratory experiments to achieve complete phytic acid degradation, followed by the production of a phytic acid free complementary food in a pilot plant. Tap water was used for pilot plant trials. For laboratory experiments, whole grain rye and whole grain wheat were purchased from a commercial seed supplier Fenaco, Winterthur, Switzerland.
Whole grain maize, whole grain buckwheat, polished rice, and wheat flour with low extraction rate were purchased in supermarkets or health stores in Zurich, Switzerland. Nestl, Singapore, provided whole grain chickpea, and dehulled and toasted soybean was purchased from Zwicky AG, MllheimWigoltingen, Switzerland. The grains and seeds were stored at 4 2 C.
Phytic acid degradation. For pilot plant trials, dehulled and toasted soybeans were purchased from Zwicky AG and whole grain wheat and wheat flour with low extraction rate from Moulins Cossonay SA, Cossonay-Ville, Switzerland. Wheat flour with low extraction rate was classified as wheat flour according to the ash content Arens All grains, seeds, and flour were stored at ambient temperature.
Milling Grains and seeds used in laboratory experiments were frozen in liquid nitrogen and milled with a centrifugal mill 0. Dehulled and toasted soybeans and whole grain wheat for pilot plant trials were milled at Nestl Product Technology Centre, Orbe, Switzerland.
Phytic acid The phytic acid content of the milled grains and seeds was determined according to Sandberg and Ahderinne and Sandberg and others with modifications Egli and others Hard red wheat bran Lot , , American Assn. Paul, Minn. The determination limit for IP6 was 0. Phytic acid and lower inositol phosphates were extracted under constant stirring rpm for 3 h at room temperature.
About 30 mL of the sample solution were centrifuged at rpm for 10 min, and 15 mL of the supernatant were used for the inositol phosphate determination as described earlier. Phytic acid degradation in complementary food production Complementary food production was carried out in a pilot plant Nestl Product Technology Center, Orbe. Water kg was heated to about 55 C in a tank, and the complementary food mixture was added under constant stirring.
The pH was adjusted with 1 M citric acid to pH 5. Aliquots about 10 g of the slurry were weighed into mL polyethylene bottles containing 70 mL 0. Aliquots were taken every 20 min, and the inositol phosphates were determined as described in the laboratory experiments. The pH value was measured at the beginning of the incubation and every 60 min thereafter. The temperature was monitored continuously.
After min, the slurry was heated by steam injection about C and roller dried. Phytase assay The milled grains and seeds were screened for apparent phytase activity. About 1 g milled grains or seeds was added to 20 mL buffer 0. The measurement was performed for 1 h at 45 C under constant stirring with aliquots taken every 20 min. The reaction was terminated by adding 0.
Inorganic phosphate was determined colorimetrically Van Veldhoven and Mannaerts at 4 times 0, 20, 40, 60 min. Inorganic phosphate was liberated at a constant rate, and apparent phytase activity was calculated by linear regression of the inorganic phosphate determined for each time point. Samples were analyzed in triplicate and the phytase activity expressed in phytase units PU per g.
One phytase unit is equivalent to the enzymatic activity that liberates 1 mol inorganic phosphate per min. Additional experiments were performed to determine the pH and temperature conditions for maximum phytase activity of whole grain rye, whole grain wheat, and whole grain buckwheat.
The pH was adjusted to values in the range of 4. The temperature varied between 25 C and 65 C. All other conditions and procedures were as described above.
Results and Discussion Phytic acid content and phytase activity of experimental grains and seeds The grains and seeds used for laboratory experiments and complementary food production were analyzed for their phytic acid content and their phytase activity Table 2.
The phytic acid content ranged from 1. Whole grain rye, wheat, and buckwheat were selected as phytase sources because they showed high apparent phytase activities in an earlier study Egli and others In the present study, the phytase activities were comparable and were 6.
The cereals maize, rice, and wheat with low extraction rate and the legumes chickpea and soybean were chosen as ingredients for complementary food mixtures in the form they are commonly used in the food industry. All these ingredients showed low phytase activities in the range of 0. Phytic acid degradation in laboratory experiments Phytic acid degradation was investigated in various cereal and cereal-legume mixtures. Milled grains and seeds total weight 50 to g were weighed into mL polypropylene containers in the proportions shown in Table 1.
They were mixed by vigorous shaking for about 5 min and aliquots 2 to 4 g of the mixtures were weighed into Erlenmeyer flasks and heated to the incubation temperature 50 C. Citric acid 10 mL, 2 to 11 mM depending on the mixture and target pH were heated to the incubation temperature and then added to form a slurry.
The Erlenmeyer flasks were covered and placed in an incubator 50 C under constant stirring rpm. Incubation times varied between 20 and min depending on the composition of the mixtures. The enzymatic reaction was Because the differences in the phytic acid content and in the phytase activities between the grains and seeds used for laboratory experiments and for the complementary food production were very small, no substantial influence on phytic acid degradation was expected between the 2 sets of experiments.
Optimum reaction conditions for rye, wheat, and buckwheat phytase For the phytase sources whole grain rye, whole grain wheat, and whole grain buckwheat , the pH and temperature conditions were optimized so as to achieve maximum enzymatic activities.
The optimum pH for whole grain rye 5. For whole grain wheat, the optimum pH 5. The optimum temperature was slightly higher than 55 C, as reported by Peers The optimum pH and temperature conditions for buckwheat phytase had not been reported previously and were found to be pH 5.
In the following experiments, the incubation conditions were adjusted to the optimum pH for the respective phytase source and 50 C was used as the maximum temperature to avoid thermal denaturation of the enzymes. Complementary food production Wheat whole grain 9.
Phytic acid degradation in laboratory experiments The phytic acid degradation was 1st tested in maize to compare the impact of 2 phytase sources: whole grain wheat and whole grain rye. Phytic acid degradation using whole grain wheat as the phytase source was relatively slow. After min of incubation, 0. Complete degradation required 6 h of incubation. When rye was used as the phytase source, IP5 and IP6 were. After min only 0.
The results of the phytic acid degradation in the maize-wheat and maize-rye mixture were used to verify whether the rapid determination of phytase activity as described in the phytase assay might be useful to estimate the time required for phytic acid degradation in cereal-legume mixtures. The results demonstrate that complete phytic acid degradation took slightly longer as the reaction slowed down with prolonged incubation time, most probably due to available substrate phytic acid concentration.
In the phytase assay the enzymatic activity is measured in the initial phase of the reaction; that is, when inorganic phosphate is liberated at a constant rate, and. Incubation conditions: pH 5. JFS is available in searchable form at www. In the experiments monitoring phytic acid degradation in cereal or cereal-legume mixtures, the free or available substrate becomes a limiting factor and therefore slows down the reaction.
Taking limited substrate into account as well as differences in the incubation conditions, the results of phytic acid degradation in maize-wheat and maize-rye mixtures demonstrate that the determination of the phytase activity is useful to estimate the potential of a grain to degrade phytic acid, because the phytase activity of rye was more than double that of wheat Table 2. The selected cereal-legume mixtures were used to test the methodology developed and are not meant to be representative for specific regions of the world.
Buckwheat has lower phytase activity than wheat and rye, but is gluten-free and thus has other interesting potential. It was tested in a mixture based on rice as an example of a gluten-free cereal. The relatively low initial phytic acid content 3. In addition, phytic acid degradation was measured under the same conditions in the rice-chickpea mixture without addition of whole grain buckwheat as the phytase source results not shown.
Thus, the low phytase activity of chickpea and rice significantly contributed to the inositol phosphate degradation.
Contents - Previous - Next. Such methods are quite often associated with the drying of the crop, and are primarily intended to serve this purpose. They assume the function of storage only if the grain is kept in place beyond the drying period.
One possible way out of the situation that arises more acutely at the moment is to increase crop yields. The fundamental direction of raising this figure from crops is the introduction of new varieties with high potential productivity. The result is that we want to get to a large extent depends on the right decisions when choosing varieties for cultivation. Every year the country imports seeds of many varieties and hybrids of agricultural crops. But not all of them are able to unleash your genetic potential in the existing soil and climatic conditions.
Reduction of phytic acid and enhancement of bioavailable micronutrients in food grains
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Reduction of phytic acid and enhancement of bioavailable micronutrients in food grains
This book aims to thoroughly discuss new directions of thinking in the arena of environmental archaeology and test them by presenting new practical applications. Recent theoretical and epistemological advancement in the field of archaeology calls for a re-definition of the subdiscipline of environmental archaeology and its position within the practise of archaeology. New technological and methodological discoveries in hard sciences and computer applications opened fresh ways for interdisciplinary collaborations thus introducing new branches and specialisations that need now to be accommodated and integrated within the previous status-quo. His major research interest comprises the development of early farming communities in the eastern Mediterranean and western Asia and their progression to complex societies. His other interests comprise a history of archaeological thought as well as social and political circumstances of the development of archaeological theories.
Cambridge University Press Empik. Marek Zvelebil. Hunters in Transition analyses one of the crucial events in human cultural evolution: the emergence of post-glacial hunter-gatherer communities and the development of farming.
New World crops
Iron and zinc deficiencies are the major health problems worldwide. Phytic acid is the major storage form of phosphorous in cereals, legumes, oil seeds and nuts. Phytic acid is known as a food inhibitor which chelates micronutrient and prevents it to be bioavailabe for monogastric animals, including humans, because they lack enzyme phytase in their digestive tract.
The phrase " New World crops " is usually used to describe crops , food and otherwise, that were native to the New World mostly the Americas before CE and not found anywhere else at that time. Many of these crops are now grown around the world and have often become an integral part of the cuisine of various cultures in the Old World. Notable among these crops are the Three Sisters : maize, winter squash, and climbing beans. The new world developed agriculture by at least BC. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
What you can and cannot eat on a bland diet
A bland diet includes low fiber foods that have a soft consistency and are gentle on the digestive system. Bland diets are also known as soft diets, low residue diets, and gastrointestinal soft diets. A doctor might recommend a bland diet for people experiencing gastrointestinal inflammation from infections, diverticulitis , or the flares of a chronic condition, such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. People with other gastrointestinal conditions, including acid reflux and peptic ulcers , may also benefit from a bland diet. As well as specific food recommendations, people following a bland diet may also have to eat smaller meals more frequently, eat more slowly, and avoid lying down soon after eating.
Agricultural Seed Production. Raymond A. A practical coverage of the principles of producing seeds for the main agricultural crops, this book emphasises producing optimal quality seed, and applies to small and large scale farms worldwide.
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Iron is a mineral vital to the proper function of hemoglobin, a protein needed to transport oxygen in the blood. Iron also has a role in a variety of other important processes in the body. A shortage of iron in the blood can lead to a range of serious health problems, including iron deficiency anemia.
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