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Space factory devices peripheral computing complexes and electronic digital machines

Space factory devices peripheral computing complexes and electronic digital machines

A computer is a machine that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs. These programs enable computers to perform an extremely wide range of tasks. A "complete" computer including the hardware , the operating system main software , and peripheral equipment required and used for "full" operation can be referred to as a computer system. This term may as well be used for a group of computers that are connected and work together, in particular a computer network or computer cluster.

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Industry 4.0: the terms you need to know

Hardware is the most visible part of any information system: the equipment such as computers, scanners and printers that is used to capture data, transform it and present it to the user as output. Although we will focus mainly on the personal computer PC and the peripheral devices that are commonly used with it, the same principles apply to the complete range of computers:. And we are already moving into the age of wearable computers for medical or security applications, embedded computers in appliances ranging from motor cars to washing machines, and the smart card which will provide identification, banking facilities, medical records and more!

Data may enter an information system in a variety of different ways, and the input device that is most appropriate will usually depend on the type of data being entered into the system, how frequently this is done, and who is responsible for the activity. For example, it would be more efficient to scan a page of typed text into an information system rather than retyping it, but if this happens very seldom, and if typing staff are readily available, then the cost of the scanner might not be justified.

However, all of the input devices described in this chapter have at least one thing in common: the ability to translate non-digital data types such as text, sound or graphics into digital i. A lot of input still happens by means of a keyboard. Usually, the information that is entered by means of a keyboard is displayed on the monitor. This layout now works counter-productively since a computer can process keyboard input many times faster than even the fastest typist can manage.

A number of attempts have been made to design alternative layouts by rearranging the keys the Dvorak keyboard or by reducing the number of keys. None of these alternative designs has really caught on. Special keyboards have also been designed for countries that use a non-Roman alphabet, and also for disabled people. It consists of a plastic moulded housing, designed to fit snugly in the palm of the hand, with a small ball at its bottom. Moving the mouse across a flat surface will translate the movements into a rolling action of the ball.

Since the trackball can be built into the side of the keyboard, it obviates the need for a free surface area and is therefore handy in situations where desktop surface area is at a premium or not available. Originally popular in educational laboratory settings and for laptop computers, trackballs are now mainly confined to exhibition displays and other public terminals.

Touch-screens are computer monitors that incorporate sensors on the screen panel itself or its sides. The user can indicate or select an area or location on the screen by pressing a finger onto the monitor. Light and touch pens work on a similar principle, except that a stylus is used, allowing for much finer control. Touch pens are more commonly used with handheld computers such as personal organizers or digital assistants.

They have a pen-based interface whereby a stylus a pen without ink is used on the small touch-sensitive screen of the handheld computer, mainly by means of ticking off pre-defined options, although the fancier models support data entry either by means of a stylized alphabet, which resembles a type of shorthand, or some other more sophisticated handwriting recognition interface.

Digitizer tablets also use a pressure sensitive area with a stylus. This can be used to trace drawings. A similar conceptual approach is used for the touch pad that can be found on the majority of new notebook computers, replacing the more awkward joystick or trackball. A large number of game interfaces have been developed to provide a more realistic and natural interface in various gaming situations and simulations: the joy stick, steering wheel, foot pedal and other gaming devices.

They all perform functions similar to the mouse in that they allow the user to control a cursor or simulate generally real-time motion control. Contact your nearest game arcade for details. Although the data glove also fits under the previous category, it is technically a lot more complex. It looks like a hand glove but contains a large number of sensors and has a data cable attached; though the latter is being replaced by means of infrared cordless data transmission.

Not only does the data glove allow for full three-dimensional movement but it also senses the position of individual fingers, translating this into a grip.

The glove is currently used in virtual reality simulators where the user moves around in an artificially rendered environment projected onto tiny LCD screens fitted into vision goggles. Advanced models even allow for tactile feedback by means of small pressure pockets built into the glove. A magnetic card reader reads the magnetized stripe on the back of plastic credit-card size cards. These cards need to be pre-recorded following certain standards.

Although the cards can hold only a tiny amount of information, they are very popular for access door control and financial transactions ATMs and point-of-sale terminals.

Magnetic ink character recognition MICR uses a special ink containing magnetizable elements and a distinct font type. It is used mainly in the banking sector for the processing of cheques. Touch-tone devices can use a voice telephone to contact computer-based switchboards or enter information directly into remote computers. South African banks also enable their clients to perform a number of banking transactions via telephone. Digital cameras allow you to make pictures of physical objects directly in a digital, i.

Relatively low-cost digital still picture cameras are now available that capture images directly on electronic disk or RAM media instead of the traditional film. Apart from being very compact, most of these digital cameras can also interface directly with personal computers and are thus becoming a popular tool to capture pictures for e-mailing or loading on the world-wide Web.

Biometric devices are used to verify personal identity based on fingerprints, iris or retinal scanning, hand geometry, facial characteristics etc. A scanning device is used to capture key measurements and compare them against a database of previously stored information. This type of authentication is becoming increasingly important in the control of physical access. Finally, voice input devices are coming of age. These systems allow for voice control of most standard applications including the operating system.

In fact, these systems are not only used for the interface of computer programs; they are also slowly making an appearance in consumer appliances, novelty items and even motor cars!

Much more difficult to achieve than voice control, is true voice dictation used to dictate e. The difficulty is that the computer must not only distinguish between many tens of thousands of possible words, but it must also recognize the almost unnoticeable breaks in between words, different accents and intonations.

Nevertheless, for personal purposes and slow typists, voice recognition is rapidly becoming a viable alternative to the keyboard.

Once data has been entered into a computer, it is acted on by the CPU, which is the real brain of the computer. The CPU takes specific program instructions usually one at a time , applies them to the input data and transforms the input into output.

The CPU is an electronic device based on microchip technology, hence it is also often called the microprocessor. It is truly the showcase and culmination of the state-of-the-art in the electronics industry: a tiny silicon-based chip occupying less than 1 square cm contains several millions of transistor elements, measuring less than a thousandth of a millimeter across.

They operate at speeds way beyond our comprehension: a typical CPU can multiply more 7-digit numbers in one second than a human could do in ten lifetimes, but uses less energy than a light bulb!

Think of the motor car industry: there are different manufacturers or makes of cars Volkswagen, Toyota, etc. It is the same in the computer chip business. There are many different types of CPUs on the market. Some of its competitors produce clones or imitations e. AMD , others manufacturers produce different types of microprocessors or concentrate on small volumes of highly specialized or very fast microprocessors. Intel has produced a large number of CPU types: the earliest model used in the Personal Computer was the , followed by the , the , the , and the line of Pentium processors.

How does one measure the speed of, say a Porsche ? One could measure the time that it takes to drive a given distance e. Alternatively, one can indicate how far it can be driven in one standard time unit e. In the same way, one can measure the speed of the CPU by checking the time it takes to process one single instruction. As indicated above, the typical CPU is very fast and an instruction can be done in about two billionths of a second.

To deal with these small fractions of time, scientists have devised smaller units: a millisecond a thousandth of a second , a microsecond a millionth , a nanosecond a billionth and a picosecond a trillionth. However, instead of indicating the time it takes to execute a single instruction, the processing speed is usually indicated by how many instructions or computations a CPU can execute in a second.

This is exactly the inverse of the previous measure; e. In the world of personal computers, one commonly refers to the rate at which the CPU can process the simplest instruction i. For powerful computers, such as workstations, mainframes and supercomputers, a more complex instruction is used as the basis for speed measurements, namely the so-called floating-point operation. Their speed is therefore measured in megaflops million of floating-point operations per second or, in the case of very fast computers, teraflops billions of flops.

The latest Pentium processor has a clock speed of about 4 GHz and contains well over million transistors. Compare this with the clock speed of 5 MHz achieved by the processor with 29 transistors! The traditional model of the computer has one single CPU to process all the data. This is called the Von Neumann architecture because he engineered this approach to computers in the days when computers were still a dream.

Some super-computers that have been designed for massive parallel processing, have up to 64, CPUs. These computers are typically used only for specialized applications such as weather forecasting or fluid modeling. Perhaps the major future competitor of the microchip-based microprocessor is optical computing. Although the technology for developing electronic microchips suggests that CPUs will continue to increase in power and speed for at least the next decade or so, the physical limits of the technology are already in sight.

Switching from electronic to light pulses offers a number of potential advantages: light which consists of photons can travel faster, on narrower paths and does not disperse heat.

In theory, one can even process different signals each with a different light frequency simultaneously using the same channel. Although the benefits of optical processing technology have already been proven in the areas of data storage CD-Rom, CD-R and communication fibre optics , the more complex all-optical switches required for computing are still under development in the research laboratories.

A very experimental alternative to optical and electronic technologies is the organic computer. Research indicates that, for certain applications, it is possible to let a complex organic molecule act as a primitive information processor. Although this type of computer can attack combinatorial problems way beyond the scope of traditional architectures, the main problem is that the programming of the bio-computer relies entirely on the bio-chemical properties of the molecules.

Another exciting but currently still very theoretical development is the possible use of quantum properties as the basis for a new type of computer architecture. Since quantum states can exist in juxtaposition, a register of qubits a bit value in quantum state takes on all the possible values simultaneously until it is measured. This could be exploited to speed up extremely parallel algorithms and would affect such areas as encryption, searching and error-correction.

To date, experimental computers with a few qubits have been built but the empirical validation of the actual usefulness of quantum computing still remains an open question. RAM consists of standard circuit-inscribed silicon microchips that contain many millions of tiny transistors. Very much like the CPU chips, their technology follows to the so-called law of Moore, which states that they double in capacity or power for the same price every 18 months.

A RAM chip easily holds hundreds of Megabytes million characters. The biggest disadvantage of RAM is that its contents are lost whenever the power is switched off. Two important types of RAM are:. A small but essential element of any computer, ROM also consists of electronic memory microchips but, unlike RAM, it does not lose its contents when the power is switched off. Its function is also very different from that of RAM. Since it is difficult or impossible to change the contents of ROM, it is typically used to hold program instructions that are unlikely to change during the lifetime of the computer.

Embedded system

That same year in Germany, engineer Konrad Zuse built his Z2 computer, also using telephone company relays. Their first product, the HP A Audio Oscillator, rapidly became a popular piece of test equipment for engineers. In , Bell Telephone Laboratories completes this calculator, designed by scientist George Stibitz. Stibitz stunned the group by performing calculations remotely on the CNC located in New York City using a Teletype terminal connected via to New York over special telephone lines.

Computers Computer is a machine for performing calculations automatically. An expert at calculation or at operating calculating machines. A machine that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

In fact, calculation underlies many activities that are not normally thought of as mathematical. Walking across a room, for instance, requires many complex, albeit subconscious, calculations. Computers, too, have proved capable of solving a vast array of problems, from balancing a checkbook to even—in the form of guidance systems for robots—walking across a room. Before the true power of computing could be realized, therefore, the naive view of calculation had to be overcome. The inventors who laboured to bring the computer into the world had to learn that the thing they were inventing was not just a number cruncher, not merely a calculator.

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Embedded computers are purpose-built computing platforms, designed for a specific, software-controlled task. These are not the typical tower or desktop consumer-grade computers we are used to work with at home or at the office. Typically embedded computers are hardened devices as their use cases tend to be mostly in challenging harsh environment conditions, such as extreme temperature, vibration, shock, dust and humidity. There are various types of embedded computers, from rugged industrial box PCs to panel PCs, mini PCs, industrial rackmount server, vehicle computers, and IoT gateways. An embedded computer is a microprocessor-based system, specially designed to perform a specific function and belong to a larger system. It comes with a combination of hardware and software to achieve a unique task and withstand different conditions. Embedded computers offer an intelligent alternative to PLC Programmable Logic Controller based automation, as x86 architecture of embedded computers allows for integration of any Windows or Linux based software that is capable of controlling and managing more complex tasks through the program. The main differences between an embedded and a desktop computer are purpose and design.

The Trajectory of Digital Computing

For example N. Metropolis, J Howlett, and G Rota devote two articles in A History of Computing in the Twentieth Century to the history of British codebreaking machines, in particular the Colossus series which had from 2, to vacuum tubes and could do elementary add, subtract, multiply and divide functions. In addition to numerous histories treating Bletchley Park, novels have been written and movies made about the activities there. What kept them from true general purpose, stored program digital computers was, of course, the lack of random access working memory to hold instructions and data.

A system can be defined as a set of interdependent components combined in such a way as to perform a given function under specified conditions.

As a technician involved with the processes controlled by PLCs, it is important to understand their basic functionalities and capabilities. What is a Programmable Logic Controller? A programmable logic controller PLC is a digital computer used for automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or lighting fixtures. PLCs are used in many industries and machines.

Glossary Of Technical Terms

Today's world runs on computers. Nearly every aspect of modern life involves computers in some form or fashion. As technology is advancing, the scale of computer use is increasing. Computer users include both corporate companies and individuals.

A few weeks week later the subject of those reports is strangely forgotten, having been replaced by some new development, which we are assured, this time, is the real turning point. Yet there is no question that the effect of computing technology on the daily lives of ordinary people has been revolutionary. A simple measure of the computing abilities of these machines, as measured by metrics such as the amount of data it can store and retrieve from its internal memory, reveals a rate of advance not matched by any other technologies, ancient or modern. One need not resort to the specialized vocabulary of the computer engineer or programmer: the sheer numbers of computers and digital devices installed in homes and offices or carried by consumers worldwide shows a similar rate of growth, and it is not slowing down. An even more significant metric looks at what these machines do. Modern commercial air travel, tax collection, medical administration and research, military planning and operations—these and a host of other activities bear an indelible stamp of computer support, without which they would either look quite different or not be performed at all.

Introduction to Computer Information Systems/Print version

To benefit from the advantages that Industry 4. The next stage in the evolution of industry, like the previous three, the fourth revolution is a response to the rise of new technologies. As the rise of the smart factory is set to transform manufacturing, some businesses are already taking the lead in:. A coherent Industry 4. If you want to know your big data from your cloud robotics, take a look at our handy glossary of key terms. The process of joining materials to make objects from 3D model data, generally layer upon layer, as opposed to via subtractive manufacturing methods. Although commonly also referred to as 3D printing, increasingly manufacturers are differentiating the two.

Raising the topics of industrial software stack advancement, digital will impact the industrial equipment and machinery space. 12 and machinery companies have focused on selling hardware (e.g., machines, smaller/less complex factory intelligence. Integration machine by machine. E. Full move to IIoT archi-.

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Electronics, computers, and associated software have transformed every facet of society. In addition to providing the basis for the information revolution, electronics enable many of society's vital support systems, including those that provide for such necessities as food, water, energy, transportation, health care, telecommunications, trade, and finance.

Bolero Ozon. Career Opportunities in the Armed Forces. Henderson , Jack Dolphin , Pamela Fehl.

Hardware is the most visible part of any information system: the equipment such as computers, scanners and printers that is used to capture data, transform it and present it to the user as output. Although we will focus mainly on the personal computer PC and the peripheral devices that are commonly used with it, the same principles apply to the complete range of computers:. And we are already moving into the age of wearable computers for medical or security applications, embedded computers in appliances ranging from motor cars to washing machines, and the smart card which will provide identification, banking facilities, medical records and more!

The political imperative to keep the Soviet space program "failure-free" compelled the leaders of this program to choose the simplest, well-tested, most reliable technical solutions. It is often claimed that these considerations delayed the implementation of computer technology on board Soviet spacecraft and hampered the development of the Soviet space program in general.

Latin B. German C. French D. Who is the father of Computer? Allen Turing B.

Because an embedded system typically controls physical operations of the machine that it is embedded within, it often has real-time computing constraints. Embedded systems control many devices in common use today. Modern embedded systems are often based on microcontrollers i. In either case, the processor s used may be types ranging from general purpose to those specialized in certain class of computations, or even custom designed for the application at hand. A common standard class of dedicated processors is the digital signal processor DSP. Since the embedded system is dedicated to specific tasks, design engineers can optimize it to reduce the size and cost of the product and increase the reliability and performance.

ГЛАВА 87 Веспа выехала в тихий переулок Каретерра-де-Хуелва. Еще только начинало светать, но движение уже было довольно оживленным: молодые жители Севильи возвращались после ночных пляжных развлечений.

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  1. Zolokazahn

    It is a pity, that now I can not express - I hurry up on job. But I will return - I will necessarily write that I think.