Storage plant workers and special-purpose products
A warehouse is a building for storing goods. They are usually large plain buildings in industrial parks on the outskirts of cities, towns or villages. They usually have loading docks to load and unload goods from trucks. Sometimes warehouses are designed for the loading and unloading of goods directly from railways , airports , or seaports.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Cities at Sea: How Aircraft Carriers Work
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In this wider sense, farm management is the discipline within whose ambit farm-level systems analysis most clearly falls. This does not exclude from farm systems analysis other disciplines of a technical or special-purpose nature.
Farm management system analysis can have several operating objectives Section 2. These several aspects of farm management as a systems-related discipline are now briefly discussed in turn. See also Makeham and Malcolm , Ch. The appendix to this text gives the authors' perspective on farm management as it relates to management per se and to farm systems theory. However, for reasons discussed in Chapter 1, it is often essential, especially when dealing with small farms, that farm management extends also to the family or household component, thus its true scope extends to Order Level 12 systems.
A second consideration is that the village is sometimes a more relevant unit for analysis than the farm, and where this is so the scope of 'farm' management extends to systems of Order Levels 1 to 13 as discussed in Section 1. This implies obtaining maximum possible net benefit over time from the operation of the farm system. Net benefit is measured, as appropriate, in terms of output or profit or, more broadly, as satisfaction or utility.
Maximization of net benefit implies efficient use of available resources and opportunities. For the achievement of a given level of net benefit, it implies the minimization of costs. This reflects a theoretical view. In the real world, as discussed in Chapter 6, the general objective is often constrained by household and social factors other than availability of physical inputs and their costs.
Thus many small-farm households place a high value on the long-term sustainability of their farm system. Also, in the real world, uncertainty will generally prevail about yields, prices and other relevant influences so that the farmer's choice will lie not between sure alternatives but between alternative subjective probability distributions of net benefits. This aspect is considered in Chapter Optimization can occur at two levels: local or global.
When operating in Field A on-farm problem solving - see Section 2. This sets it apart from other farm-related agricultural sciences which are usually though not always concerned primarily with optimization of lower order subsystems, i. Two examples will clarify this point. First, a farm might involve only two irrigated crops, cotton and sugarcane. If only the cotton is considered, the local optimum might be to use all of the water supply on cotton, but if the farm as a whole is considered, i.
Second, a farm-household system itself might be only a subsystem within some larger system. The term 'welfare' is used broadly to include money income, sustenance food, farm-produced consumption goods and factors of production, non-material benefits such as those enabling the attainment of education and health standards, and satisfactions derived from work well done as well as from cultural and religious sources. Welfare maximization is conditional because it is constrained by resource availability and, as relevant, legal constraints and socio-cultural mores.
Typically the farm plays only an enabling role towards achieving broad family goals. Thus farm management is concerned with conditional optimization of only part of a farm-household system - but usually the most important material part. The specific objective might be to maximize money profit or, recognizing the presence of uncertainty, to maximize the expected utility Chapter 11 of risky profit farms of Type 4, 5 and 6 and possibly Type 3 as defined in Section 2.
Goals and objectives are discussed in Chapter 6. There are no choices to which the science of economics cannot be applied. It is just as pertinent, e. In contrast to this wide applicability of economic analysis, financial analysis is restricted to matters that are naturally of a financial or monetary nature. Financial analysis is thus a subset of economic analysis and, in circumstances where everything is valued in money terms, may be the natural way in which to conduct economic analysis.
In other cases, it may be feasible to facilitate economic analysis of possible choices by imputing money values to possible gains and losses. And in yet other cases, such as assessing the resource sustainability and environmental compatibility of alternative farm systems, it may often be infeasible to impute money values to the gains and losses of alternative choices.
Decisions must then be made using economic analysis based on non-money values, intuition and judgement. Farm management economics i. However, except in the case of special-purpose technical systems e. That in fact this often does not happen and the lead is taken instead by workers in other disciplines is really not important.
It might just reflect the fact that many agriculturists are aware of the necessity for a systems approach if application of their expertise is to be effective; or that many agricultural economists are content in the more modest role of economics apparachnik. Nevertheless, the disciplinary basis of farm management remains economics - but economics of a special wide-ranging kind, the core of which is production economics supported by other branches of economics of which marketing, resource economics, agricultural credit and data analysis including operations research, econometrics and risk analysis are probably the most important.
When working with the household component, especially of small traditional farms, the most important supporting disciplines are sociology and social anthropology.
The most important of these is the necessity to bring the many relationships of a system and between systems to some common unit or basis of comparison. Unless this is done, systems analysis and the comparison of alternatives will not be possible. The base usually most convenient - and in the case of commercial farm systems most relevant and which has the highest degree of universality - is money or financial value. But several other bases for systems analysis are possible and in certain circumstances they might well be more relevant than money value.
The four most important bases of comparison are as follows: a Money value: The convenience of using money or financial values as the basis of commercial farm systems analysis will be obvious: it permits the various system inputs e.
At least this is so in the eyes of the majority of Asian and African small-farm families for two reasons. First, on these farms most production activities involve few if any commercial inputs and most outputs are also not disposed of through commercial channels. Money hardly enters into the matter at all. Not unnaturally then, these families plan, compare and evaluate their several different farming activities and alternatives i.
To conduct such analysis on any other basis such as money value would be an incomprehensible abstraction. However, 'labour' is not a simple quantity. It can have several dimensions: quantity when labour is measured in terms of standardized units e. Thus, in different societies, patriarchal or matriarchal, women's labour will be valued less or more highly than the labour of men regardless of the actual effort expended, while the labour performed by children might also be valued according to their usually inferior social status rather than to the actual work they perform.
These dimensions of labour and the implied difficulties of measurement often limit the use of this factor as an alternative to money value. Nevertheless labour often provides a more relevant basis for systems analysis of a very large number of small traditional farms than does money.
Farm-system models have sometimes been structured on the basis of such energy content and inter-component energy flows - see, e. Use of energy-based farm systems analysis rests on the view that, in a world of declining energy resources and materials that can be represented by their energy content, the energy generation and consumption of farm-household systems is a more valid basis for systems analysis than is money profit, and usually also that energy flows which are directly or indirectly involved in all economic activities including agriculture are not properly represented - indeed they are often severely distorted - by commercial pricing mechanisms.
However, these views involve issues and require solutions at much higher than farm level. Water is obviously the critical common factor in all the farming systems of that great belt of lands stretching from North Africa to India, so much so that even the very wealthy Gulf States, while they have been able to import or create all other agricultural resources, including soils, micro-environments and farmers, remain constrained by water.
Moreover, in the 'wet' tropics, the critical nature of this input common to all parts of all farming systems is not yet widely recognized; e. However, as important as water is, like bio-mechanical energy it is more appropriate as a basis for some aspects of macro-level systems analysis than for operational-oriented systems analysis at farm level. In summary, except when used in connection with special-purpose systems, such bases of analysis as energy, water, ecological balance etc.
Money value and labour will probably continue to be used as such a base, either separately in the case of commercial and near-subsistence farms respectively, or jointly in the case of the bulk of small traditional partly commercialized farms. The great bulk of farm management systems analysis occurs within this field. Field A is the conventional area in which farm management operates, directed to solving the on-farm problems of individuals and groups.
Except where otherwise noted, this book is concerned with farm management within Field A; it needs no further discussion at this point except to note that such analysis should, whenever possible, involve farmer participation so as to ensure that the farmer's felt needs are considered Ashby and Sperling ; Chambers ; Chambers and Ghildyal ; Matlon et al.
Field B consists of those problems and analyses which should not really fall within Field A i. Examples of the scope of Field B farm management analysis are offered by the agricultural industries and sectors of some of the mini-states.
For example, the agricultural sector of the island nation Kiribati is equivalent to not much more than a single good-sized coconut estate with a few supplementary enterprises added. This sector a system of Order Level 16 could easily and probably most effectively be analysed, of course with the necessary modifications, as if it were a system of Order Level 10 or The industry could justifiably be analysed as a single large 'farm system' even though in fact and in respect of banana-growing activities it really consists of many farm-household systems.
Obviously, since this type of higher-than-farm-level analysis will be concerned with a range of subject matter in addition to farm economics - processing, marketing, transport, research, extension etc.
Another condition is that the analysis could not be better performed by a systems analyst working within the conceptual framework of some other discipline. If this is the case then farm management analysis would operate in a subservient role in Field C.
Field C consists of problems or issues arising within or in relation to higher systems of Order Levels 13 to 16, towards the resolution of which farm management plays only a secondary contributing or partial role, e. In this type of supporting role, farm management can operate in any or successively all of Modes 2, 3 and 4, i. However, any 'prescription' that is offered will be of a limited kind and fall short of being a plan for the overall project or program.
Analysis will be directed towards the achievement of some global optimum which is not defined in terms of farm management itself. This type of analysis is in Mode 2 Section 2. Field D consists of farm management in the role of generating data for the guidance or support of agricultural policy making.
Provision of such data might not require special studies or systems analysis for this particular purpose; often such data will be an incidental output of analysis undertaken for some other purpose, e.
Field D analysis is also of a supportive kind and operates in Modes 2 and 3 quantitative description and diagnosis as outlined in Section 2. The aim is usually to generate knowledge about farm-households or their component subsystems which is to be used by governments, public agencies etc.
Dixon et al. These policies might imply either enhancing farmer welfare or reducing it e. This is a very important and wide-ranging field: it is difficult to think of any policy which is to affect farmers which should not be based at least in part on farm-level analysis, despite the fact that such farm-level analysis is in fact frequently not carried out, much to the detriment of sound policy making.
Mode 1 encompasses routine operational and control activities. This may be thought of as practical or 'muddy-boots' farm management. Management in this mode is largely outside the scope of the present discussion, except that the systems concepts discussed here will, it is hoped, provide principles to guide practical i. Mode 2 refers to descriptive activities whereby farm management provides a conceptual framework for the study, understanding and description of farm systems or farm-related problems.
This might be an end in itself; or more likely it will be a necessary stage in the logical-event sequence towards action, as suggested in Figure 2. The chief function of descriptive farm management studies is to provide a basis of understanding before problem diagnosis is attempted.
There are still many societies in the world with farm-household systems of which we are in nearly complete ignorance; understanding and description of these systems must precede problem diagnosis and, if need be, prescription of solutions. Mode 3 refers to diagnostic activities concerned with the identification of problems and weaknesses in farm-level systems of all Order Levels 1 to 10 and those parts of Order Level 11 household systems relating to the farm.
Such problem diagnosis includes the identification of potential opportunities. Problem diagnosis is usually carried out as a separate mode, but on some commercial farms it might be built into their routine monitoring and management mechanisms as also on more sophisticated estates.
Nearly all industries, including the agri-food industry and the service industry, use chemicals in variable amounts and must therefore store them, as well as the produced chemical waste before disposal. Acting as a warehouse, the storage facility also shelters the chemicals: it protects the personnel and the environment from the effects of a spill, or an aerosol or gas emission. While designing a chemical storage facility, regardless of its size, it is thus essential to take into account all hazardous properties of chemicals, intrinsic or arising from interactions. Toxicological, chemical and physical properties define the hazards of a chemical. However in a chemical storage facility further factors add on: quantity, storage form, proximity of various chemicals, activities carried out in the facility, etc.
It needs to be performed by skilled craftsmen and in this chapter an attempt is made to provide the engineering staff of milk plants with a guide to maintenance comprising:. Regulations concerning health and safety at work may differ from country to country in detail, but some relevant provisions are embodied in all of them. All craftsmen must adhere strictly to the regulations concerning their particular trade, together with the Company rules complying with the country regulations actually in force. It is the duty of every employee while at work to take reasonable care for the health and safety of himself and of other persons, who may be affected by his acts or omissions at work. No person shall intentionally or recklessly interfere with or misuse anything provided in the interests of health, safety or welfare in pursuance of any of the relevant statutory provisions.
Workplace Housekeeping - Basic Guide
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What should your employees know before moving, handling, and storing materials? What are the potential hazards for workers? What precautions should workers take when moving materials manually? What precautions should workers take when moving materials mechanically?
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Plant Layout: Concept, Objectives, Principles and Types
Read this article to learn about the concept, objectives, principles, and types of plant layout. Plant layout is a plan for effective utilisation of facilities for the manufacture of products; involving a most efficient and economical arrangement of machines, materials, personnel, storage space and all supporting services, within available floor space. Materials and labour should be moved over minimum distances; saving cost and time of transportation and material handling.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Specialty RELEASE COATING AND LAMINATING MACHINE for SPECIAL PURPOSE ADHESIVE COATING PRODUCTS
Why should manufacturing firms in many national industries maintain multiple small scale plants when they might produce the same output at a lower unit cost in a single large establishment? What specific benefits are attained through the operation of multiple plants? To address these questions, the authors conducted in-depth interviews with businessmen actively involved in plant size and multi-plant operating decisions. The authors develop an economic theory of plant size and multi-plant decisions and apply it to analyze the statistical and qualitative evidence on factors affecting plant size choices. They then examine the extent of multi-plant operation, its statistical correlate, and the economy actually or potentially realizable from various modes of multi-plant operation.
Standardizing for success
Standardization facilitates a lean, efficient, and functional workplace. It enables quick transitions between personnel who perform the same task, increases production speed, and improves product quality through a consistent application of tools. In fact, standardization often results in improved workplace culture, as managers and employees find that their jobs are simplified and their everyday tasks streamlined. As one of the elements of the 5S process, Standardization along with Sort, Set in Order, Shine, and Sustain helps businesses eliminate waste and improve workplace efficiency, customer service, and product consistency. To standardize, plant management must engage with their teams to set up machines in a consistent way and use tools in a uniform manner. Although these changes may require employees to sacrifice their individual approach to performing tasks, uniform practices and procedures create a more productive workplace. Standardization improves productivity and employee morale by eliminating inefficient and frustrating practices. When machines and tools are used in the same way and stored in the same place, employees are more productive.
Daniel Gallik. Figure Page. September
Introduction to the Health and Safety at Work Act 2015 – special guide
Many years of sales experience and customer relations in all areas of general mechanical and plant engineering, as well as specialist knowledge in design engineering, tribology and surface technology underline the high quality of our advice. Our customer service is personal and individual. It encompasses; in-depth technical advice, the entire order process, in-house training regarding the usage, handling, installation and maintenance of the specific products. We as sales representatives, support our partners with technical and commercial services related to the marketing and sale of machine components.
This quick reference guide summarises the key components of HSWA including the roles and responsibilities of PCBUs, officers, workers and others in managing workplace health and safety risks. It gives examples to explain certain concepts and directs readers to where they can find guidance on how to meet regulatory requirements. As this guide will be updated regularly, please check the WorkSafe website for the latest version. All work and workplaces are covered by HSWA unless specifically excluded.
Biologics are bacterial and viral vaccines, antigens, antitoxins and analogous products, serums, plasmas and other blood derivatives for therapeutically protecting or treating humans and animals. Bulks are active drug substances used to manufacture dosage- form products, process medicated animal feeds or compound prescription medications. Diagnostic agents assist the diagnosis of diseases and disorders in humans and animals. Diagnostic agents may be inorganic chemicals for examining the gastrointestinal tract, organic chemicals for visualizing the circulatory system and liver and radioactive compounds for measuring the function of organ system. Drugs are substances with active pharmacological properties in humans and animals.
Easy-to-read, question-and-answer fact sheets covering a wide range of workplace health and safety topics, from hazards to diseases to ergonomics to workplace promotion. Download the free OSH Answers app. Search all fact sheets:. Effective housekeeping can help control or eliminate workplace hazards. Poor housekeeping practices frequently contribute to incidents.
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